Numerical studies of the wind-induced bias of precipitation measurements assume that turbulence is generated by the interaction of the airflow with the gauge body, while steady and uniform free-stream conditions are imposed. However, wind is turbulent in nature due to the roughness of the site and the presence of obstacles, therefore precipitation gauges are immersed in a turbulent flow. Further to the turbulence generated by the flow-gauge interaction, we investigated the natural free-stream turbulence and its influence on precipitation measurement biases. Realistic turbulence intensity values at the gauge collector height were derived from 3D sonic anemometer measurements. Large Eddy Simulations of the turbulent flow around a chimney-shaped gauge were performed under uniform and turbulent free-stream conditions, using geometrical obstacles upstream of the gauge to provide the desired turbulence intensity. Catch ratios for dry snow particles were obtained using a Lagrangian particle tracking model, and the collection efficiency was calculated based on a suitable particle size distribution. The collection efficiency in turbulent conditions showed stronger undercatch at the investigated wind velocity and snowfall intensity below 10 mm h−1
, demonstrating that adjustment curves based on the simplifying assumption of uniform free-stream conditions do not accurately portray the wind-induced bias of snow measurements.
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