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Article

Interannual and Spatial Variability of Cyanotoxins in the Prespa Lake Area, Greece

1
Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Department of Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Radboud University, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen, The Netherlands
2
Aquatic Ecology & Water Quality Management Group, Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
3
Society for the Protection of Prespa, Agios Germanos, 53077 Prespa, Greece
4
Department of Aquatic Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), P.O. Box 50, 6700 AB Wageningen, The Netherlands
5
B-WARE Research Centre, Radboud University, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen, The Netherlands
6
Wageningen Food Safety Research, Wageningen Research, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Moustaka-Gouni
Water 2021, 13(3), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030357
Received: 20 December 2020 / Revised: 24 January 2021 / Accepted: 26 January 2021 / Published: 30 January 2021
The Prespa Lakes area in Greece—comprised partly of lake Great and lake Lesser Prespa and the Vromolimni pond—has a global importance for biodiversity. Although the waters show regular cyanobacteria blooms, assessments of water quality threats are limited. Samples collected in 2012 revealed scattered and low microcystin (MC) concentrations in Great Prespa (<0.2 μg MC L−1) whereas considerable spatial heterogeneity in both total chlorophyll (2.4–93 µg L−1) and MC concentrations (0.04–52.4 µg MC L−1) was detected in Lesser Prespa. In 2013, there was far less spatial variability of MC concentrations in Lesser Prespa (0.4–1.53 µg L−1), however in 2014, increased concentrations were detected near the lakeshore (25–861 µg MC L−1). In Vromolimni pond the MC concentrations were on average 26.6 (±6.4) µg MC L−1 in 2012, 2.1 (±0.3) µg MC L−1 in 2013 and 12.7 (±12.5) µg MC L−1 in 2014. In 2013, no anatoxins, saxitoxins, nor cylindrospermopsins were detected in Lesser Prespa and Vromolimni waters. Tissue samples from carps, an otter and Dalmatian Pelicans contained 0.4–1.9 µg MC g−1 dry weight. These results indicate that cyanotoxins could be a threat to the ecosystem functions of particularly Lesser Prespa and Vromolimni. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanobacterial toxin; LC-MS/MS; Prespa Lake; Microcystin; eutrophication; migrating birds cyanobacterial toxin; LC-MS/MS; Prespa Lake; Microcystin; eutrophication; migrating birds
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    Doi: https://doi.org/10.17026/dans-2zk-fjj3
    Link: https://doi.org/10.17026/dans-2zk-fjj3
    Description: The datasets from the supplementary material will be published at the DANS (National center of expertise and repository for research data,https://dans.knaw.nl) after the manuscript is online. The link to access these datasets is: https://doi.org/10.17026/dans-2zk-fjj3 and it will be active at that time.
MDPI and ACS Style

Maliaka, V.; Lürling, M.; Fritz, C.; Verstijnen, Y.J.M.; Faassen, E.J.; van Oosterhout, F.; Smolders, A.J.P. Interannual and Spatial Variability of Cyanotoxins in the Prespa Lake Area, Greece. Water 2021, 13, 357. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030357

AMA Style

Maliaka V, Lürling M, Fritz C, Verstijnen YJM, Faassen EJ, van Oosterhout F, Smolders AJP. Interannual and Spatial Variability of Cyanotoxins in the Prespa Lake Area, Greece. Water. 2021; 13(3):357. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030357

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maliaka, Valentini, Miquel Lürling, Christian Fritz, Yvon J.M. Verstijnen, Elisabeth J. Faassen, Frank van Oosterhout, and Alfons J.P. Smolders. 2021. "Interannual and Spatial Variability of Cyanotoxins in the Prespa Lake Area, Greece" Water 13, no. 3: 357. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030357

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