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Article

Study of the Influence of Temperature on Boron Concentration Estimation in Desalinated Seawater for Agricultural Irrigation

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Agromotic Engineering and the Sea Research Group, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, 30202 Cartagena, Spain
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Department of Structures, Construction and Graphic Expression, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, 30202 Cartagena, Spain
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Electrical Engineering and Renewable Energies Group, Department of Automation, Electrical Engineering and Electronic Technology, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, 30202 Cartagena, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ying Zhao
Water 2021, 13(3), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030322
Received: 21 November 2020 / Revised: 22 January 2021 / Accepted: 25 January 2021 / Published: 28 January 2021
After several decades, the incorporation of desalinated seawater into agricultural areas with scarce water resources has become one of the main water supply strategies. Compared to the several currently available desalination techniques, reverse osmosis (RO) is now the reference technology because it lowers energy uses and production costs. Nevertheless, its main limiting factor lies in the membranes used for this system not efficiently retaining boron, which is a problem because the concentration of this element in seawater is high. For 3 years, the present work analysed the impact of seawater temperature on the kinetic parameters of boron rejection in an RO system to establish their annual behaviour and the existing correlation between both parameters. A comparison was made using the values simulated in the projection software provided by the manufacturer of the membranes. The obtained results indicated a high correlation, and the R2 correlation coefficients came very close to the unity. Nonetheless, this correlation lowered with time due to typical membrane ageing and compaction because of the system’s continuous operation. Under the tested working conditions and by applying analysed temperature intervals, it was impossible to reach the 0.3 mg·L−1 boron concentration value that ensures lack of crop toxicity. Thus, incorporating other boron reduction techniques is necessary. View Full-Text
Keywords: reverse osmosis; phytotoxicity; selective ion removal; boron rejection efficiency; software for water-treatment design reverse osmosis; phytotoxicity; selective ion removal; boron rejection efficiency; software for water-treatment design
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MDPI and ACS Style

Escarabajal-Henarejos, D.; Parras-Burgos, D.; Ávila-Dávila, L.; Cánovas-Rodríguez, F.J.; Molina-Martínez, J.M. Study of the Influence of Temperature on Boron Concentration Estimation in Desalinated Seawater for Agricultural Irrigation. Water 2021, 13, 322. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030322

AMA Style

Escarabajal-Henarejos D, Parras-Burgos D, Ávila-Dávila L, Cánovas-Rodríguez FJ, Molina-Martínez JM. Study of the Influence of Temperature on Boron Concentration Estimation in Desalinated Seawater for Agricultural Irrigation. Water. 2021; 13(3):322. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030322

Chicago/Turabian Style

Escarabajal-Henarejos, David, Dolores Parras-Burgos, Laura Ávila-Dávila, Francisco J. Cánovas-Rodríguez, and José M. Molina-Martínez. 2021. "Study of the Influence of Temperature on Boron Concentration Estimation in Desalinated Seawater for Agricultural Irrigation" Water 13, no. 3: 322. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030322

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