Next Article in Journal
Determination of Force Coefficients for a Submerged Rigid Breakwater under the Action of Solitary Waves
Previous Article in Journal
Impeller Optimization in Crossflow Hydraulic Turbines
Article

Interaction of Factors Influencing the Sustainability of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Services in Rural Indonesia: Evidence from Small Surveys of WASH-Related Stakeholders in Indonesia

1
Department of Water Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands
2
Department of Health Behavior, Environment, and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, 55281 Yogyakarta, Indonesia
3
Environmental Management Technology Research Group, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, 40132 Bandung, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Guy Howard
Water 2021, 13(3), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030314
Received: 7 January 2021 / Revised: 22 January 2021 / Accepted: 22 January 2021 / Published: 27 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
It is argued that there are interconnected and dynamic factors that influence the sustainability of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services in developing countries. Five sustainability factors are often mentioned by literature: financial, institutional, environmental, technical, and social (FIETS) factors. This article aims to understand the interaction of those five sustainability factors in the context of WASH services in Indonesia. A system approach, in the form of a “modified” causal loop diagram, was utilized to analyze this interaction. The strength of influence from one factor to others were obtained from small surveys of 16 WASH practitioners and experts from international and national non-governmental organizations (NGOs) based in Indonesia and national government institutions related to WASH. It was found that institutional factor is the “leverage” factor, i.e., the most influential and least dependent, in the WASH services system in Indonesia. It means that WASH institutional strengthening is necessary to sustain WASH services in Indonesia. Furthermore, the most important feedback loop is social–WASH services. This depicts the importance of the bi-directional effect of WASH services and the social conditions of the community, i.e., the more supportive the community is, the higher the likelihood of the sustainability of WASH services, and then positively influence back the social conditions of the community. Moreover, the relationship between factors varies across context or location. Finally, this paper shows that the sustainability of WASH services involves complex interactions of the sustainability factors and understanding these interactions is critical to sustaining the WASH services or program in rural Indonesia. View Full-Text
Keywords: water; sanitation; sustainability; causal loop diagram; Indonesia water; sanitation; sustainability; causal loop diagram; Indonesia
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Daniel, D.; Djohan, D.; Nastiti, A. Interaction of Factors Influencing the Sustainability of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Services in Rural Indonesia: Evidence from Small Surveys of WASH-Related Stakeholders in Indonesia. Water 2021, 13, 314. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030314

AMA Style

Daniel D, Djohan D, Nastiti A. Interaction of Factors Influencing the Sustainability of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Services in Rural Indonesia: Evidence from Small Surveys of WASH-Related Stakeholders in Indonesia. Water. 2021; 13(3):314. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030314

Chicago/Turabian Style

Daniel, D., Dennis Djohan, and Anindrya Nastiti. 2021. "Interaction of Factors Influencing the Sustainability of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Services in Rural Indonesia: Evidence from Small Surveys of WASH-Related Stakeholders in Indonesia" Water 13, no. 3: 314. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030314

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop