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Article

A New Approach in Determining the Decadal Common Trends in the Groundwater Table of the Watershed of Lake “Neusiedlersee”

1
Department of Methodology for Business Analysis, Budapest Business School, University of Applied Sciences, Alkotmány utca 9-11., H-1054 Budapest, Hungary
2
Institute for Geological and Geochemical Research, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Eötvös Loránd Research Network (ELKH), Budaörsi út 45., H-1112 Budapest, Hungary
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Department of Probability Theory and Statistics, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/C, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary
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Department of Mathematics and Computational Sciences, Széchenyi István University, Egyetem tér 1, H-9026 Győr, Hungary
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Department of Geology, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/C, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary
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Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, TU Wien, Karlsplatz 13, A-1040 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2021, 13(3), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030290
Received: 23 December 2020 / Revised: 20 January 2021 / Accepted: 21 January 2021 / Published: 25 January 2021
Shallow groundwater is one of the primary sources of fresh water, providing river base-flow and root-zone soil water between precipitation events. However, with urbanization and the increase in demand for water for irrigation, shallow groundwater bodies are being endangered. In the present study, 101 hydrographs of shallow groundwater monitoring wells from the watershed of the westernmost brackish lake in Europe were examined for the years 1997–2012 using a combination of dynamic factor and cluster analyses. The aims were (i) the determination of the main driving factors of the water table, (ii) the determination of the spatial distribution and importance of these factors, and (iii) the estimation of shallow groundwater levels using the obtained model. Results indicate that the dynamic factor models were capable of accurately estimating the hydrographs (avg. mean squared error = 0.29 for standardized water levels), meaning that the two driving factors identified (evapotranspiration and precipitation) describe most of the variances of the fluctuations in water level. Both meteorological parameters correlated with an obtained dynamic factor (r = −0.41 for evapotranspiration & r = 0.76 for precipitation). The strength of these effects displayed a spatial pattern, as did the factor loadings. On this basis, the monitoring wells could be objectively distinguished into two groups using hierarchical cluster analysis and verified by linear discriminant analysis in 98% of the cases. This grouping in turn was determined to be primarily related to the elevation and the geology of the area. It can be concluded that the application of the data analysis toolset suggested herein permits a more efficient, objective, and reproducible delineation of the primary driving factors of the shallow groundwater table in the area. Additionally, it represents an effective toolset for the forecasting of water table variations, a quality which, in the view of the likelihood of further climate change to come, is a distinctive advantage. The knowledge of these factors is crucial to a better understanding of the hydrogeological processes that characterize the water table and, thus, to developing a proper water resource management strategy for the area. View Full-Text
Keywords: dynamic factor analysis; hydrograph time series; shallow groundwater; water resource management; watershed of Lake “Neusiedlersee” dynamic factor analysis; hydrograph time series; shallow groundwater; water resource management; watershed of Lake “Neusiedlersee”
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MDPI and ACS Style

Magyar, N.; Hatvani, I.G.; Arató, M.; Trásy, B.; Blaschke, A.P.; Kovács, J. A New Approach in Determining the Decadal Common Trends in the Groundwater Table of the Watershed of Lake “Neusiedlersee”. Water 2021, 13, 290. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030290

AMA Style

Magyar N, Hatvani IG, Arató M, Trásy B, Blaschke AP, Kovács J. A New Approach in Determining the Decadal Common Trends in the Groundwater Table of the Watershed of Lake “Neusiedlersee”. Water. 2021; 13(3):290. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030290

Chicago/Turabian Style

Magyar, Norbert, István G. Hatvani, Miklós Arató, Balázs Trásy, Alfred P. Blaschke, and József Kovács. 2021. "A New Approach in Determining the Decadal Common Trends in the Groundwater Table of the Watershed of Lake “Neusiedlersee”" Water 13, no. 3: 290. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030290

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