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Article

An Assessment of Vertical Land Movement to Support Coastal Hazards Planning in Washington State

1
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97405, USA
2
Washington Sea Grant, Port Angeles, WA 98362, USA
3
Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
4
Climate Impacts Group, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
5
US Geological Survey, Bellingham, WA 98225, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gary B. Griggs
Water 2021, 13(3), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030281
Received: 1 December 2020 / Revised: 19 January 2021 / Accepted: 21 January 2021 / Published: 24 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Hazards Management)
The sea and land change elevation spatially and temporally from a multitude of processes, so it is necessary to constrain the movement of both to evaluate how coastlines will evolve and how those evolving coastlines will impact the natural and built environment over time. We combine land movement observations from global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs), leveling of geodetic monuments, and tide gauge records with a tectonic model of the Cascadia subduction zone to constrain absolute rates of vertical land movement in coastal Washington. We infer rates of vertical land movement in areas lacking direct observations by interpolating high-quality land movement observations and a discretely sampled interseismic locking model. Here we present a model of absolute vertical land movement that is combined with sea level rise estimates to inform local relative sea level projections on a community-scale. The most rapid vertical uplift (~3.5 mm/year) of the land is found across the northwest Olympic Peninsula, which currently outpaces sea level rise. Conversely, some areas, including a stretch of the northern Pacific Ocean coast from La Push to Kalaloch and the southern Puget Sound, are found to be subsiding at 0.5–1.0 mm/year, exacerbating the rate of relative sea level rise and thereby increasing the vulnerability of coastal communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: land motion; vertical land movement; relative sea level; tectonic locking; interseismic deformation; multimethod interpolation land motion; vertical land movement; relative sea level; tectonic locking; interseismic deformation; multimethod interpolation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Newton, T.J.; Weldon, R.; Miller, I.M.; Schmidt, D.; Mauger, G.; Morgan, H.; Grossman, E. An Assessment of Vertical Land Movement to Support Coastal Hazards Planning in Washington State. Water 2021, 13, 281. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030281

AMA Style

Newton TJ, Weldon R, Miller IM, Schmidt D, Mauger G, Morgan H, Grossman E. An Assessment of Vertical Land Movement to Support Coastal Hazards Planning in Washington State. Water. 2021; 13(3):281. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030281

Chicago/Turabian Style

Newton, Tyler J., Ray Weldon, Ian M. Miller, David Schmidt, Guillaume Mauger, Harriet Morgan, and Eric Grossman. 2021. "An Assessment of Vertical Land Movement to Support Coastal Hazards Planning in Washington State" Water 13, no. 3: 281. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030281

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