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Surface and Groundwater Characteristics within a Semi-Arid Environment Using Hydrochemical and Remote Sensing Techniques

1
International Water Research Institute (IWRI), Mohammed VI Polytechnic University, Ben Guerir 43150, Morocco
2
High Energy and Astrophysics Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech 40000, Morocco
3
Mohammadia School of Engineering, Mohamed V University, Rabat 10090, Morocco
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Centre D’études Spatiales de la Biosphère (Cesbio), Institut de Recherche Pour le Développement (IRD), Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR), 31401 Toulouse, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2021, 13(3), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030277
Received: 20 December 2020 / Revised: 8 January 2021 / Accepted: 15 January 2021 / Published: 24 January 2021
The understanding of hydro systems is of great importance in monitoring quantitative and qualitative changes in water resources. The Essaouira region at the edge of the Moroccan Atlantic Ocean is subject to a semi-arid climate. The decrease in rainfall as a result of climate change and the increase in the exploitation of surface and groundwater have disrupted the stability of these resources and threaten the socio-economic and environmental balance in the area under investigation. Climate scenarios estimate that precipitation will decrease by 10–20% while warming increases by 3 °C over the next 30 years. The physico-chemical parameters studied show that the evolution of the pH and temperature of the groundwater remained stable with a neutral (pH ≈ 7) and a hypothermal character (T < 30 °C). For the electrical conductivity, it showed an increasing trend from 2017 to 2020. A hydrochemical approach showed that the groundwater mineralization was controlled by the dissolution of evaporites and carbonates, by cation exchange processes, and by seawater contamination. A groundwater assessment for drinking use was made by comparing the concentrations of the chemical elements with the standards set by the World Health Organization. The results obtained show that the groundwater from the aquifers studied requires treatment before being consumed, in particular for Cl and SO42−. Furthermore, the groundwater quality for irrigation was evaluated based on the parameters Na% and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR). The results showed that the groundwater was adequate for agricultural purposes, especially for the plants that adapt to high salinity. The monitoring of surface water by processing the satellite images via the calculation of the normalized difference water index (NDWI) showed an increase in water surface areas in the region following the commissioning of two large dams (Zerrar and Igouzoullene). Despite the installation of these hydraulic structures, a drop of 4.85 km2 in water surface area was observed beyond 2016. This situation requires intervention in order to preserve this vital resource. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater; NDWI; water surface; semi-arid area; GIS groundwater; NDWI; water surface; semi-arid area; GIS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rafik, A.; Bahir, M.; Beljadid, A.; Ouazar, D.; Chehbouni, A.; Dhiba, D.; Ouhamdouch, S. Surface and Groundwater Characteristics within a Semi-Arid Environment Using Hydrochemical and Remote Sensing Techniques. Water 2021, 13, 277. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030277

AMA Style

Rafik A, Bahir M, Beljadid A, Ouazar D, Chehbouni A, Dhiba D, Ouhamdouch S. Surface and Groundwater Characteristics within a Semi-Arid Environment Using Hydrochemical and Remote Sensing Techniques. Water. 2021; 13(3):277. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030277

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rafik, Abdellatif, Mohammed Bahir, Abdelaziz Beljadid, Driss Ouazar, Abdelghani Chehbouni, Driss Dhiba, and Salah Ouhamdouch. 2021. "Surface and Groundwater Characteristics within a Semi-Arid Environment Using Hydrochemical and Remote Sensing Techniques" Water 13, no. 3: 277. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030277

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