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Article

Relationships of Hydrological Seasons in Rivers and Groundwaters in Selected Catchments in Poland

1
Department of Hydrology and Water Management, Institute of Climatology and Hydrology, Faculty of Geographical Sciences, University of Łódź, 88 Narutowicza Str., 90-139 Łódź, Poland
2
Department of Hydrology and Water Management, Faculty of Geographical and Geological Sciences, Adam Mickiewicz University, 10 Krygowskiego Str., 61-680 Poznań, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2021, 13(3), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030250
Received: 17 December 2020 / Revised: 14 January 2021 / Accepted: 18 January 2021 / Published: 20 January 2021
The study applied the method of hydrological season identification in a time series of river total and base flows and in groundwater levels. The analysis covered a series of daily measurements from the period 2008–2017 in nine catchments located in different geographical regions of Poland. The basis of the classification of hydrological seasons, previously applied for river discharges only, was the transformation of the original variables into a series reflecting three statistical features estimated for single-name days of a year from a multiyear: average value, variation coefficient, and autocorrelation coefficient. New variables were standardized and after hierarchical clustering, every day of a year had a defined type, valorizing three features which refer to quantity, variability, and the stochastic nature of total and base river flow as well as groundwater stage. Finally, sequences of days were grouped into basic (homogenous) seasons of different types and transitional seasons including mixed types of days. Analysis indicated determinants of types, length, and frequency of identified hydrological seasons especially related to river regime, hydrogeological and hydrometeorological conditions as well as physiographical background were directly influenced by geographical location. Analysis of the co-occurrence of the same types of hydrological seasons allowed, in some catchments, periods of synchronic alimentation (groundwater and base flow, mainly in the cold half-year) and water shortages (all three components, mainly in the warm half-year) to be identified. View Full-Text
Keywords: Central Europe; hydrological seasons; hierarchical clustering; river flow components; seasonal synchronicity of flow Central Europe; hydrological seasons; hierarchical clustering; river flow components; seasonal synchronicity of flow
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tomalski, P.; Tomaszewski, E.; Wrzesiński, D.; Sobkowiak, L. Relationships of Hydrological Seasons in Rivers and Groundwaters in Selected Catchments in Poland. Water 2021, 13, 250. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030250

AMA Style

Tomalski P, Tomaszewski E, Wrzesiński D, Sobkowiak L. Relationships of Hydrological Seasons in Rivers and Groundwaters in Selected Catchments in Poland. Water. 2021; 13(3):250. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030250

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tomalski, Przemysław, Edmund Tomaszewski, Dariusz Wrzesiński, and Leszek Sobkowiak. 2021. "Relationships of Hydrological Seasons in Rivers and Groundwaters in Selected Catchments in Poland" Water 13, no. 3: 250. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030250

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