Next Article in Journal
Effect of Subsurface Mediterranean Water Eddies on Sound Propagation Using ROMS Output and the Bellhop Model
Next Article in Special Issue
Swimming Pool Regulations in the COVID-19 Era: Assessing Acceptability and Compliance in Greek Hotels in Two Consecutive Summer Touristic Periods
Previous Article in Journal
Estimating Yield and Water Productivity of Tomato Using a Novel Hybrid Approach
Previous Article in Special Issue
Viral Cutaneous Infections in Swimmers: A Preliminary Study

Quantification of Hypochlorite in Water Using the Nutritional Food Additive Pyridoxamine

Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet, Building 115, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
FUJIFILM Diosynth Biotechnologies, Biotek Allé 1, 3400 Hillerød, Denmark
Department of Chemical Engineering, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol 3036, Cyprus
International and Intelligent Society Division, Sweco Danmark A/S, Ørestads Boulevard 41, 2300 København, Denmark
Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, Produktionstorvet, Building 423, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Athena Mavridou
Water 2021, 13(24), 3616;
Received: 22 November 2021 / Revised: 10 December 2021 / Accepted: 10 December 2021 / Published: 16 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Recreational Waters: Sanitation and Safety Issues)
Chlorine is a widely used disinfectant and oxidant used for an array of municipal and industrial applications, including potable water, swimming pools, and cleaning of membranes. The most popular method to verify the concentration of free chlorine is the colorimetric method based on DPD (N, N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine), which is fast and reasonably cheap, but DPD and its product are potentially toxic. Therefore, a novel, environmentally friendly colorimetric method for the quantification of residual chlorine based on the food additive pyridoxamine (4-(aminomethyl)-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylpyridin-3-ol) was investigated. Pyridoxamine is a B6 vitamin with an absorption maximum at 324 nm and fluorescence emission at 396 nm. Pyridoxamine reacts rapidly and selectively with free chlorine, resulting in a linear decrease both in absorbance and in emission, giving therefore calibration curves with a negative slope. The pyridoxamine method was successfully applied for the quantification of free chlorine from 0.2 to 250 mg/L. Using 1 cm cuvettes, the limit of quantification was 0.12 mg Cl2/L. The pyridoxamine and the DPD methods were applied to actual environmental samples, and the deviation between results was between 4% and 9%. While pyridoxamine does not react with chloramine, quantification of monochloramine was possible when iodide was added, but the reaction is unfavourably slow. View Full-Text
Keywords: free chlorine; quantification method; absorbance; fluorescence; pyridoxamine free chlorine; quantification method; absorbance; fluorescence; pyridoxamine
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Kaarsholm, K.M.S.; Kokkoli, A.; Keliri, E.; Mines, P.D.; Antoniou, M.G.; Jakobsen, M.H.; Andersen, H.R. Quantification of Hypochlorite in Water Using the Nutritional Food Additive Pyridoxamine. Water 2021, 13, 3616.

AMA Style

Kaarsholm KMS, Kokkoli A, Keliri E, Mines PD, Antoniou MG, Jakobsen MH, Andersen HR. Quantification of Hypochlorite in Water Using the Nutritional Food Additive Pyridoxamine. Water. 2021; 13(24):3616.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kaarsholm, Kamilla M.S., Argyro Kokkoli, Eleni Keliri, Paul D. Mines, Maria G. Antoniou, Mogens H. Jakobsen, and Henrik R. Andersen. 2021. "Quantification of Hypochlorite in Water Using the Nutritional Food Additive Pyridoxamine" Water 13, no. 24: 3616.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop