Next Article in Journal
Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Hollow Membrane Filtration for Concentration Polarization
Next Article in Special Issue
Applications of Nano-Zeolite in Wastewater Treatment: An Overview
Previous Article in Journal
Preparation of a Novel Activated Carbon from Cassava Sludge for the High-Efficiency Adsorption of Hexavalent Chromium in Potable Water: Adsorption Performance and Mechanism Insight
Previous Article in Special Issue
Spatiotemporal Variation on Water Quality and Trophic State of a Tropical Urban Reservoir: A Case Study of the Lake Paranoá-DF, Brazil
 
 
Article

Use of Stainless-Steel Electrodes on the Electrochemical Oxidation of Naproxen and its Transformation Products in Surface Water

School of Engineering and Science, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Av. Eugenio Garza Sada Sur No. 2501, Col. Tecnológico, Monterrey 64849, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Goen Ho, Yung-Tse Hung, Hamidi Abdul Aziz, Issam A. Al-Khatib, Rehab O. Abdel Rahman and Tsuyoshi Imai
Water 2021, 13(24), 3604; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243604
Received: 27 September 2021 / Revised: 8 December 2021 / Accepted: 9 December 2021 / Published: 15 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Engineering and Wastewater Treatment Ⅱ)
In this study, stainless-steel electrodes were used to effectively oxidize naproxen and its transformation products in surface water by electrochemical oxidation in short reaction times. An evaluation of the effects of current density, chloride concentrations, and pH on the electrochemical oxidation process (mechanisms, kinetics, and reaction times) was conducted. Results showed that degradation rates of naproxen were greater, and the reaction times were shorter than those reported in other studies for other compounds and electrode materials. Oxidation naproxen and its transformation products were faster at high current densities, high chloride concentrations, and low pH conditions; however, good performance of the electrochemical oxidation process was observed at 16.3 mA/cm2 and pH 5 for both the naproxen and its transformation products, which were oxidized in only 15 min for the treated effluent and 30 min in the case of sludge. At pH 3 and 5, the number of transformation products and the reaction times required for achieving complete oxidation were greater in sludge than in the treated effluent; meanwhile, at pH 7 and 9, the number of transformation products and reaction times needed for non-detection were of the same order in both the treated effluent and the sludge. View Full-Text
Keywords: active chlorine species oxidation; current density; chloride concentration and pH effects; direct electrolysis; naproxen; stainless-steel electrodes; transformation products active chlorine species oxidation; current density; chloride concentration and pH effects; direct electrolysis; naproxen; stainless-steel electrodes; transformation products
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

López Zavala, M.Á.; Anglés Vega, D. Use of Stainless-Steel Electrodes on the Electrochemical Oxidation of Naproxen and its Transformation Products in Surface Water. Water 2021, 13, 3604. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243604

AMA Style

López Zavala MÁ, Anglés Vega D. Use of Stainless-Steel Electrodes on the Electrochemical Oxidation of Naproxen and its Transformation Products in Surface Water. Water. 2021; 13(24):3604. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243604

Chicago/Turabian Style

López Zavala, Miguel Ángel, and Diego Anglés Vega. 2021. "Use of Stainless-Steel Electrodes on the Electrochemical Oxidation of Naproxen and its Transformation Products in Surface Water" Water 13, no. 24: 3604. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243604

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop