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Article

Rainwater Harvesting to Address Current and Forecasted Domestic Water Scarcity: Application to Arid and Semi-Arid Areas

Laboratoire de Génie Civil et Géo-Environnement, Lille University, IMT Lille Douai, JUNIA Hauts-de-France, ULR 4515-LGCgE, F-59000 Lille, France
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Academic Editor: Lahcen Zouhri
Water 2021, 13(24), 3583; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243583
Received: 1 October 2021 / Revised: 12 December 2021 / Accepted: 13 December 2021 / Published: 14 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
This paper discusses the effectiveness of rooftops rainwater harvesting (RRWH) in addressing domestic water scarcity, emphasizing the West Bank (Palestine) as an example of arid to semi-arid areas with limited water resources. The paper deals with the actual and future water demand by considering climate-change impact and urban growth. The analysis is based on the evaluation of (i) the supply–demand balance index (SDBI), which designates the ratio between the total water supply (TWS) and total water demand (TWD), and (ii) the potential of RRWH. Applying this methodology to the West Bank shows that the potential RRWH can contribute by about 40 million cubic meters/year in 2020, which is approximately the same amount of water as the municipal water supply (42 million cubic meters/year). This contribution can effectively reduce the suffering governorates from 64% to 27% in 2020. Furthermore, it can support water-related decision-makers in the arid to semi-arid areas in formulating efficient and sustainable water resources strategies. The analysis also shows that the domestic water scarcity in 2050 will be worse than in 2020 for all governorates. For example, 73% of the West Bank governorates are expected to suffer from extreme to acute water scarcity in 2050 compared to 64% in 2020. Thus, RRWH appears to be highly efficient in mitigating the current and future domestic water scarcity in the West Bank. View Full-Text
Keywords: rainwater; harvesting; rooftops; sustainability; water scarcity; GIS; Palestine rainwater; harvesting; rooftops; sustainability; water scarcity; GIS; Palestine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Judeh, T.; Shahrour, I. Rainwater Harvesting to Address Current and Forecasted Domestic Water Scarcity: Application to Arid and Semi-Arid Areas. Water 2021, 13, 3583. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243583

AMA Style

Judeh T, Shahrour I. Rainwater Harvesting to Address Current and Forecasted Domestic Water Scarcity: Application to Arid and Semi-Arid Areas. Water. 2021; 13(24):3583. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243583

Chicago/Turabian Style

Judeh, Tariq, and Isam Shahrour. 2021. "Rainwater Harvesting to Address Current and Forecasted Domestic Water Scarcity: Application to Arid and Semi-Arid Areas" Water 13, no. 24: 3583. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243583

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