Next Article in Journal
Sea Level Prediction Using Machine Learning
Next Article in Special Issue
Contamination Levels of Potentially Toxic Elements and Foraminiferal Distribution Patterns in Lagos Lagoon: A Correlation Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
Glacial Lake Evolution (1962–2018) and Outburst Susceptibility of Gurudongmar Lake Complex in the Tista Basin, Sikkim Himalaya (India)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Comparison of Four Foraminiferal Biotic Indices Assessing the Environmental Quality of Coastal Mediterranean Soft Bottoms
Communication

Fast and Reliable Identification of Ammonia Phylotypes T1, T2 and T6 Using a Stereomicroscope: Implication for Large-Scale Ecological Surveys and Monitoring Programs

1
Laboratoire d’Océanologie et de Géosciences, Univ. Lille, CNRS, Univ. Littoral Côte d’Opale, UMR 8187, LOG, Station Marine de Wimereux, 62930 Wimereux, France
2
LPG-BIAF, UMR-CNRS 6112, University of Angers, University of Nantes, 2 Bd Lavoisier, CEDEX, 49045 Angers, France
3
Union Sportive Saujonnaise Rugby, Rue Yves du Manoir, 17600 Saujon, France
4
Department of Marine Resources and Energy, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 4-5-7 Konan, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8477, Japan
5
Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luisa Bergamin
Water 2021, 13(24), 3563; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243563
Received: 26 October 2021 / Revised: 9 December 2021 / Accepted: 10 December 2021 / Published: 13 December 2021
Among benthic foraminifera, the genus Ammonia is characterized by high morphological variability which makes it particularly challenging to recognize using traditional morphology-based taxonomy. Despite the joint efforts made by both molecular and morphological taxonomists, it is still hard to identify different phylotypes based on their morphology. A new method was developed recently to discriminate three NE Atlantic phylotypes of Ammonia (T1, T2, and T6). This method is based on two morphometrical parameters using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images (i.e., the average pore diameter and the elevation of sutures on the spiral side), resulting individuals being correctly assigned to their phylotype in more than 90% of cases. In this study, we assess the possibility of implementing these criteria using a stereomicroscope. Phylotype assignations by SEM and stereomicroscopic identifications are in accordance for 62.6% of the scrutinized foraminifera and increase up to 79.5% when only the phylotype T6 is considered. Though the stereomicroscopic identification of Ammonia phylotypes based on these two morphological parameters needs to be cross-validated using molecular tools, this approach noticeably allows the identification of an individual 3 to 7 times faster than using a SEM. The ratio between accuracy and efficiency, an issue that is also attributable to the use of the rose Bengal staining method, suggests prioritizing the use of stereomicroscope identifications in large foraminiferal surveys. Finally, in the context that Ammonia phylotype T6 potentially being an alien species in Europe, this method will help to quickly identify Ammonia phylotypes; hence contributing to monitor the presence of T6 in different regions and then, offering interesting research perspectives to assess the timing and/or the progression of the possible invasion. View Full-Text
Keywords: benthic foraminifera; Ammonia; phylotypes; taxonomy; stereomicroscope benthic foraminifera; Ammonia; phylotypes; taxonomy; stereomicroscope
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Pavard, J.-C.; Richirt, J.; Courcot, L.; Bouchet, P.; Seuront, L.; Bouchet, V.M.P. Fast and Reliable Identification of Ammonia Phylotypes T1, T2 and T6 Using a Stereomicroscope: Implication for Large-Scale Ecological Surveys and Monitoring Programs. Water 2021, 13, 3563. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243563

AMA Style

Pavard J-C, Richirt J, Courcot L, Bouchet P, Seuront L, Bouchet VMP. Fast and Reliable Identification of Ammonia Phylotypes T1, T2 and T6 Using a Stereomicroscope: Implication for Large-Scale Ecological Surveys and Monitoring Programs. Water. 2021; 13(24):3563. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243563

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pavard, Jean-Charles, Julien Richirt, Lucie Courcot, Pascal Bouchet, Laurent Seuront, and Vincent M.P. Bouchet. 2021. "Fast and Reliable Identification of Ammonia Phylotypes T1, T2 and T6 Using a Stereomicroscope: Implication for Large-Scale Ecological Surveys and Monitoring Programs" Water 13, no. 24: 3563. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243563

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop