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Tracking the Origin and Evolution of Diagenetic Fluids of Upper Jurassic Carbonate Rocks in the Zagros Thrust Fold Belt, NE-Iraq
Article

Hydrothermal Fluids and Cold Meteoric Waters along Tectonic-Controlled Open Spaces in Upper Cretaceous Carbonate Rocks, NE-Iraq: Scanning Data from In Situ U-Pb Geochronology and Microthermometry

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Petroleum Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Soran University, Soran-Erbil 44008, The Kurdistan Region, Iraq
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Scientific Research Centre (SRC), Soran University, Soran-Erbil 44008, The Kurdistan Region, Iraq
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General Directorate of Scientific Research Center, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Erbil 44001, The Kurdistan Region, Iraq
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School of the Environment, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
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KU Leuven, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Celestijnenlaan 200E, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium
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Institute for Geosciences, Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main, Altenhöferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt, Germany
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Frankfurt Isotope and Element Research Center (FIERCE), Goethe-University Frankfurt, 60323 Frankfurt, Germany
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Research Group.—Biogeochemistry & Modelling of the Earth System, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas Meixner
Water 2021, 13(24), 3559; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243559
Received: 18 October 2021 / Revised: 12 November 2021 / Accepted: 6 December 2021 / Published: 13 December 2021
The Upper Cretaceous carbonates along the Zagros thrust-fold belt “Harir-Safin anticlines” experienced extensive hot brine fluids that produced several phases of hydrothermal cements, including saddle dolomites. Detailed fluid inclusion microthermometry data show that saddle dolomites precipitated from hydrothermal (83–160 °C) and saline fluids (up to 25 eq. wt.% NaCl; i.e., seven times higher than the seawater salinity). The fluids interacted with brine/rocks during their circulation before invading the Upper Cretaceous carbonates. Two entrapment episodes (early and late) of FIs from the hydrothermal “HT” cements are recognized. The early episode is linked to fault-related fractures and was contemporaneous with the precipitation of the HT cements. The fluid inclusions leaked and were refilled during a later diagenetic phase. The late episode is consistent with low saline fluids (0.18 and 2.57 eq. wt.% NaCl) which had a meteoric origin. Utilizing the laser ablation U-Pb age dating method, two numerical absolute ages of ~70 Ma and 3.8 Ma are identified from calcrete levels in the Upper Cretaceous carbonates. These two ages obtained in the same level of calcrete indicate that this unit was twice exposed to subaerial conditions. The earlier exposure was associated with alveolar and other diagenetic features, such as dissolution, micritization, cementation, while the second calcrete level is associated with laminae, pisolitic, and microstromatolite features which formed during the regional uplifting of the area in Pliocene times. In conclusion, the hydrothermal-saddle dolomites were precipitated from high temperature saline fluids, while calcrete levels entrapped large monophase with very low salinity fluid inclusions, indicative for a low temperature precipitation from water with a meteoric origin. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrothermal fluids; cold meteoric waters; Upper Cretaceous carbonate rocks; U-Pb geochronology; fluid inclusion microthermometry hydrothermal fluids; cold meteoric waters; Upper Cretaceous carbonate rocks; U-Pb geochronology; fluid inclusion microthermometry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Salih, N.; Mansurbeg, H.; Muchez, P.; Gerdes, A.; Préat, A. Hydrothermal Fluids and Cold Meteoric Waters along Tectonic-Controlled Open Spaces in Upper Cretaceous Carbonate Rocks, NE-Iraq: Scanning Data from In Situ U-Pb Geochronology and Microthermometry. Water 2021, 13, 3559. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243559

AMA Style

Salih N, Mansurbeg H, Muchez P, Gerdes A, Préat A. Hydrothermal Fluids and Cold Meteoric Waters along Tectonic-Controlled Open Spaces in Upper Cretaceous Carbonate Rocks, NE-Iraq: Scanning Data from In Situ U-Pb Geochronology and Microthermometry. Water. 2021; 13(24):3559. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243559

Chicago/Turabian Style

Salih, Namam, Howri Mansurbeg, Philippe Muchez, Axel Gerdes, and Alain Préat. 2021. "Hydrothermal Fluids and Cold Meteoric Waters along Tectonic-Controlled Open Spaces in Upper Cretaceous Carbonate Rocks, NE-Iraq: Scanning Data from In Situ U-Pb Geochronology and Microthermometry" Water 13, no. 24: 3559. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243559

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