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Article

Seasonal Variations in Groundwater Quality and Hydrogeochemistry in the Endemic Areas of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka

Department of Urban Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current affiliation: Department of Technology and Ecology, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.
Academic Editor: Aldo Fiori
Water 2021, 13(23), 3356; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233356
Received: 30 October 2021 / Revised: 22 November 2021 / Accepted: 22 November 2021 / Published: 26 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Pollution and Sanitation)
Groundwater quality and geochemical processes were investigated in the endemic areas of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka. Representative groundwater samples (n = 60) were collected from 30 dug wells located in the Anuradhapura district, over the dry and wet seasons. The samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity, major cations and major anions. Calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate ion combinations are predominant in this groundwater, and the simultaneous occurrence of high hardness (382–394 mg/L as CaCO3), alkalinity (364–379 mg/L as CaCO3) and ionicity is a salient characteristic. Alkalinity, TDS, hardness, and magnesium exceeded the safe limits for drinking in over half of the samples, regardless of the season. The major ion chemistry (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and HCO3) is primarily governed by the weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals, ion exchange, and evaporation which is accelerated by the semi-arid climate. Fluoride and chloride inputs are regulated by dissolution of fluoride-bearing minerals and anthropogenic causes, respectively. Saturation indices suggested supersaturation of carbonates and silicates, and undersaturation of evaporites and fluorite. Persistent high ionicity, and hardness of groundwater that is seldom impacted by seasonal variations might be playing a vital role in the genesis of CKDu. View Full-Text
Keywords: drinking water; rural water supply; water-related diseases; water and health drinking water; rural water supply; water-related diseases; water and health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Imbulana, S.; Oguma, K.; Takizawa, S. Seasonal Variations in Groundwater Quality and Hydrogeochemistry in the Endemic Areas of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka. Water 2021, 13, 3356. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233356

AMA Style

Imbulana S, Oguma K, Takizawa S. Seasonal Variations in Groundwater Quality and Hydrogeochemistry in the Endemic Areas of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka. Water. 2021; 13(23):3356. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233356

Chicago/Turabian Style

Imbulana, Sachithra, Kumiko Oguma, and Satoshi Takizawa. 2021. "Seasonal Variations in Groundwater Quality and Hydrogeochemistry in the Endemic Areas of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka" Water 13, no. 23: 3356. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233356

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