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Article

The Role of Stakeholder Engagement in Developing New Technologies and Innovation for Nitrogen Reduction in Waters: A Longitudinal Study

1
Aalborg University Business School, Fibigerstraede 11, DK-9220 Aalborg O, Denmark
2
Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Blichers Allé 20, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark
3
Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 23, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
4
Department of Management, Aarhus University, Fuglesangs Allé 4, DK-8210 Aarhus V, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Frode Sundnes and Sindre Langaas
Water 2021, 13(22), 3313; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223313
Received: 30 September 2021 / Revised: 15 November 2021 / Accepted: 16 November 2021 / Published: 22 November 2021
Better nitrogen management, technologies, and regulation are required to reduce nitrogen losses in the aquatic environment. New innovative technologies can support farmers in a more targeted planning of fertilizer application and crop management at the field level to increase the effect of measures when reducing nitrogen losses. However, if farmers do not perceive the need for such a concept, the demand (market pull) will be minimal, making the implementation of such a technology difficult. The lack of this market pull could, however, be counterbalanced by a market push from research or requirements from public sector stakeholders (regulators). Within this domain, the main objective of this paper was to study technological change over time and identify and understand the crucial stakeholder involvement using the Functions of Innovation Systems Approach. This article shows how stakeholders’ perceptions and participation evolved over a 10-year period. It examines the interplay between technology readiness and the perceived readiness and acceptance by affected stakeholders. We demonstrate how stakeholder engagement was crucial to ensure the development of the technologies by creating marketable options for their future implementation. A key dynamic that emerged in this process was the transition from a research push to a regulator pull. We demonstrate the fact that without the regulatory requirement linked to changes towards more targeting of measures, the technology would not, on its own, be a business case, although it would provide new knowledge, thus representing a gain for society. The specific findings can be used in countries where new technologies need to be developed, and where a link to the regulation can ensure the active use of the new technology and, therefore, make their implementation worthwhile. View Full-Text
Keywords: public–private sector collaboration; long-term projects; stakeholder engagement; socio-technical innovation; transition theory public–private sector collaboration; long-term projects; stakeholder engagement; socio-technical innovation; transition theory
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nygaard, K.; Graversgaard, M.; Dalgaard, T.; Jacobsen, B.H.; Schaper, S. The Role of Stakeholder Engagement in Developing New Technologies and Innovation for Nitrogen Reduction in Waters: A Longitudinal Study. Water 2021, 13, 3313. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223313

AMA Style

Nygaard K, Graversgaard M, Dalgaard T, Jacobsen BH, Schaper S. The Role of Stakeholder Engagement in Developing New Technologies and Innovation for Nitrogen Reduction in Waters: A Longitudinal Study. Water. 2021; 13(22):3313. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223313

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nygaard, Kenneth, Morten Graversgaard, Tommy Dalgaard, Brian H. Jacobsen, and Stefan Schaper. 2021. "The Role of Stakeholder Engagement in Developing New Technologies and Innovation for Nitrogen Reduction in Waters: A Longitudinal Study" Water 13, no. 22: 3313. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223313

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