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Article

Electrochemical Recovery to Overcome Direct Osmosis Concentrate-Bearing Lead: Optimization of Treatment Process via RSM-CCD

1
Nanobiotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14351-16471, Iran
2
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71348-14336, Iran
3
Department of Microbial Biotechnology, School of Biology, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran 14155-6455, Iran
4
Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14351-16471, Iran
5
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Western Macedonia, GR-50132 Kozani, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sergi Garcia-Segura
Water 2021, 13(21), 3136; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213136
Received: 16 October 2021 / Revised: 24 October 2021 / Accepted: 3 November 2021 / Published: 8 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Electrochemistry in Wastewater Treatment)
The use of electrochemistry is a promising approach for the treatment of direct osmosis concentrate that contains a high concentration of organic pollutants and has high osmotic pressure, to achieve the safe discharge of effluent. This work addresses, for the first time, this major environmental challenge using perforated aluminum electrodes mounted in an electrocoagulation–flotation cell (PA-ECF). The design of the experiments, the modeling, and the optimization of the PA-ECF conditions for the treatment of DO concentrate rich in Pb were explored using a central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). Therefore, the CCD-RSM was employed to optimize and study the effect of the independent variables, namely electrolysis time (5.85 min to 116.15 min) and current intensity (0.09 A to 2.91 A) on Pb removal. Optimal values of the process parameters were determined as an electrolysis time of 77.65 min and a current intensity of 0.9 A. In addition to Pb removal (97.8%), energy consumption, electrode mass-consumed material, and operating cost were estimated as 0.0025 kWh/m3, 0.217 kg Al/m3, and 0.423 USD/m3, respectively. In addition, it was found that DO concentrate obtained from metallurgical wastewater can be recovered through PA-ECF (almost 94% Pb removal). This work demonstrated that the PA-ECF technique could became a viable process applicable in the treatment of DO concentrate containing Pb-rich for reuse. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrocoagulation–flotation process; perforated aluminum; feed solution; direct osmosis; response surface methodology electrocoagulation–flotation process; perforated aluminum; feed solution; direct osmosis; response surface methodology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moosazade, M.; Ashoori, R.; Moghimi, H.; Amani, M.A.; Frontistis, Z.; Taheri, R.A. Electrochemical Recovery to Overcome Direct Osmosis Concentrate-Bearing Lead: Optimization of Treatment Process via RSM-CCD. Water 2021, 13, 3136. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213136

AMA Style

Moosazade M, Ashoori R, Moghimi H, Amani MA, Frontistis Z, Taheri RA. Electrochemical Recovery to Overcome Direct Osmosis Concentrate-Bearing Lead: Optimization of Treatment Process via RSM-CCD. Water. 2021; 13(21):3136. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213136

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moosazade, Milaad, Razieh Ashoori, Hamid Moghimi, Mohammad Ali Amani, Zacharias Frontistis, and Ramezan Ali Taheri. 2021. "Electrochemical Recovery to Overcome Direct Osmosis Concentrate-Bearing Lead: Optimization of Treatment Process via RSM-CCD" Water 13, no. 21: 3136. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213136

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