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Article

Evaluation of Paired Watershed Runoff Relationships since Recovery from a Major Hurricane on a Coastal Forest—A Basis for Examining Effects of Pinus palustris Restoration on Water Yield

1
Center for Forested Wetlands Research, USDA Forest Service, 3734 Highway 402, Cordesville, SC 29434, USA
2
Oshkosh Corporation, 1917 Four Wheel Drive, Oshkosh, WI 54902, USA
3
Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, Lower Mount Joy, South Rd., Durham DH1 3LE, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Koichiro Kuraji
Water 2021, 13(21), 3121; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213121
Received: 13 September 2021 / Revised: 26 October 2021 / Accepted: 1 November 2021 / Published: 5 November 2021
The objective of this study was to test pre-treatment hydrologic calibration relationships between paired headwater watersheds (WS77 (treatment) and WS80 (control)) and explain the difference in flow, compared to earlier published data, using daily rainfall, runoff, and a water table measured during 2011–2019 in the Santee Experimental Forest in coastal South Carolina, USA. Mean monthly runoff difference between WS80 and WS77 of −6.80 mm for 2011–2019, excluding October 2015 with an extreme flow event, did not differ significantly from −8.57 mm (p = 0.27) for the 1969–1978 period or from −3.89 mm for 2004–2011, the post-Hurricane Hugo (1989) recovery period. Both the mean annual runoff coefficient and monthly runoff were non-significantly higher for WS77 than for WS80. The insignificant higher runoff by chance was attributed to WS77’s three times smaller surface storage and higher hypsometrical integral than those of WS80, but not to rainfall. The 2011–2019 geometric mean regression-based monthly runoff calibration relationship, excluding the October 2015 runoff, did not differ from the relationship for the post-Hugo recovery period, indicating complete recovery of the forest stand by 2011. The 2011–2019 pre-treatment regression relationship, which was not affected by periodic prescribed burning on WS77, was significant and predictable, providing a basis for quantifying longleaf pine restoration effects on runoff later in the future. However, the relationship will have to be used cautiously when extrapolating for extremely large flow events that exceed its flow bounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: rainfall; runoff coefficient; water table; surface storage; soil water storage; evapotranspiration; calibration regression rainfall; runoff coefficient; water table; surface storage; soil water storage; evapotranspiration; calibration regression
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MDPI and ACS Style

Amatya, D.M.; Herbert, S.; Trettin, C.C.; Hamidi, M.D. Evaluation of Paired Watershed Runoff Relationships since Recovery from a Major Hurricane on a Coastal Forest—A Basis for Examining Effects of Pinus palustris Restoration on Water Yield. Water 2021, 13, 3121. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213121

AMA Style

Amatya DM, Herbert S, Trettin CC, Hamidi MD. Evaluation of Paired Watershed Runoff Relationships since Recovery from a Major Hurricane on a Coastal Forest—A Basis for Examining Effects of Pinus palustris Restoration on Water Yield. Water. 2021; 13(21):3121. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213121

Chicago/Turabian Style

Amatya, Devendra M., Ssegane Herbert, Carl C. Trettin, and Mohammad Daud Hamidi. 2021. "Evaluation of Paired Watershed Runoff Relationships since Recovery from a Major Hurricane on a Coastal Forest—A Basis for Examining Effects of Pinus palustris Restoration on Water Yield" Water 13, no. 21: 3121. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213121

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