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Drinking Water Standards and Their Implementation—A Critical Assessment

Laboratory of Natural Resources and Renewable Energies, Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute, Centre for Research and Technology-Hellas (CERTH), 57001 Thermi-Thessaloniki, Greece
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Academic Editors: Christos S. Akratos and João Filipe Santos
Water 2021, 13(20), 2918; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202918
Received: 1 August 2021 / Revised: 8 October 2021 / Accepted: 12 October 2021 / Published: 17 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
Diminishing clean water resources and their pollution (due to human activities and climatic change) are of great concern on a global basis. Under such conditions, the adequacy of drinking water (DW) standards and their meticulous implementation are issues of utmost importance in safeguarding human health. Unfortunately, the significant number of disease outbreaks (and of other suspected/potential health effects) related to DW, even in developed countries, attests to the fact that these issues require vigilance and continuous re-appraisal, particularly considering the assorted emerging contaminants and the ever-improving technological tools to cope with them. Therefore, the present comprehensive assessment addresses the main issues and concerns regarding DW standards and implementation thereof. Emphasis is placed on identifying the inherent deficiencies of standards (due to neglect of potential toxic contaminants and to debatable specifications/limit values) and regulations for their implementation and the monitoring of DW quality (due to weaknesses of available analytical/measurement techniques and inadequacies of tools and protocols). Rather serious deficiencies on these aspects are evident regarding the main categories of contaminants, i.e., synthetic chemicals and biological species. In regard to addressing these issues, progress made in recent years at the scientific/technical level and the main challenges are outlined toward the goal of an improvement in standards and their implementation. View Full-Text
Keywords: drinking water quality; contaminants; chemical; microbiological; radiological; standards; regulations; implementation; monitoring; analytical techniques drinking water quality; contaminants; chemical; microbiological; radiological; standards; regulations; implementation; monitoring; analytical techniques
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tsaridou, C.; Karabelas, A.J. Drinking Water Standards and Their Implementation—A Critical Assessment. Water 2021, 13, 2918. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202918

AMA Style

Tsaridou C, Karabelas AJ. Drinking Water Standards and Their Implementation—A Critical Assessment. Water. 2021; 13(20):2918. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202918

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tsaridou, Charikleia, and Anastasios J. Karabelas 2021. "Drinking Water Standards and Their Implementation—A Critical Assessment" Water 13, no. 20: 2918. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202918

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