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Article

Preparedness Plan for the Water Supply Infrastructure during Water Terrorism—A Case Study from Irbid, Jordan

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School of Natural Resources Engineering and Management, German Jordanian University, P.O. Box 35247, Amman 11180, Jordan
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Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering & Information Technology, An-Najah National University, P.O. Box 7, Nablus 00970, Palestine
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Center for Environmental Studies and Research, Sultan Qaboos University, Al-Khoud, Muscat 123, Oman
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CNRS, IS2M UMR 7361, Université de Haute-Alsace, 68100 Mulhouse, France
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CNRS, IS2M UMR 7361, Université de Strasbourg, 67000 Strasbourg, France
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Carmen Teodosiu and Maria Mimikou
Water 2021, 13(20), 2887; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202887
Received: 11 September 2021 / Revised: 11 October 2021 / Accepted: 12 October 2021 / Published: 15 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment, Valorization and Reuse II)
Terrorism is a crucial danger to the world, especially the Middle East. As Jordan is amidst countries with armed conflicts, its natural resources (in particularly, water resources) are vulnerable to terrorist attacks. In this paper, possible biological and chemical weapons that can be used as intimidation, along with their threats, vulnerabilities, and inactivation methods, concerning water treatment processes in the municipality of Irbid, are studied. Irbid is the second largest city in terms of population in Jordan, after the capital city of Amman, and it is the nearest governorate to Syria borders that is considered a war zone. After conducting risk assessment that takes into consideration criticality, threats, and vulnerability, it appears that only one of the eight units, which is the Makhraba pumping station, along with the Bushra water tank, were identified as medium risk. The other units have treatment processes and proper precautions that are able to inactivate or prevent any possible contamination. A response plan should be set by developing a telemetry system with specific sensors that can detect any sudden and unacceptable threats to the water quality and that has the ability to shut down the concerned units automatically. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemical warfare agents; biological warfare agents; decontamination methods; risk assessment emergency response plan chemical warfare agents; biological warfare agents; decontamination methods; risk assessment emergency response plan
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hindiyeh, M.; Albatayneh, A.; Tarawneh, R.; Suleiman, S.; Juaidi, A.; Abdallah, R.; Jellali, S.; Jeguirim, M. Preparedness Plan for the Water Supply Infrastructure during Water Terrorism—A Case Study from Irbid, Jordan. Water 2021, 13, 2887. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202887

AMA Style

Hindiyeh M, Albatayneh A, Tarawneh R, Suleiman S, Juaidi A, Abdallah R, Jellali S, Jeguirim M. Preparedness Plan for the Water Supply Infrastructure during Water Terrorism—A Case Study from Irbid, Jordan. Water. 2021; 13(20):2887. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202887

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hindiyeh, Muna, Aiman Albatayneh, Rashed Tarawneh, Suzan Suleiman, Adel Juaidi, Ramez Abdallah, Salah Jellali, and Mejdi Jeguirim. 2021. "Preparedness Plan for the Water Supply Infrastructure during Water Terrorism—A Case Study from Irbid, Jordan" Water 13, no. 20: 2887. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202887

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