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Hyper-Nutrient Enrichment Status in the Sabalan Lake, Iran

School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 1684613114, Iran
School of Environment, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 1417853111, Iran
Department of Architecture, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: George Arhonditsis
Water 2021, 13(20), 2874;
Received: 7 September 2021 / Revised: 7 October 2021 / Accepted: 11 October 2021 / Published: 14 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Management of Inland Waters)
Lakes/reservoirs are rapidly deteriorating from cultural eutrophication due to anthropogenic factors. In this study, we aimed to (1) explore nutrient levels in the Sabalan dam reservoir (SDR) of northwest Iran, (2) determine the reservoir water fertility using the total phosphorus (TP) based and total nitrogen (TN) based Carlson trophic state indices, and (3) specify primary limiting factors for the reservoir eutrophication. Our field observations showed a state of hyper-nutrient enrichment in the SDR. The highest variation of TN in the reservoir water column happened when the reservoir was severely stratified (in August) while the highest variation of TP took place when the thermocline was attenuated with the deepening of the epilimnion (in October). Both TP and TN based trophic indicators classified the SDR as a hypereutrophic lake. TN:TP molar ratio averaged at the epilimnion indicated a P–deficiency in the reservoir during warm months whilst it suggested a co–deficiency of P and N in cold months. Given the hyper-nutrient enrichment state in the reservoir, other drivers such as water residence time (WRT) can also act as the main contributor of eutrophication in the SDR. We found that WRT in the SDR varied from hundreds to thousands of days, which was much longer than that of other reservoirs/lakes with the same and even much greater storage capacity. Therefore, both hyper-nutrient enrichment and WRT mainly controlled eutrophication in the reservoir. Given time consuming and expensive management practices for reducing nutrients in the watershed, changes in the SDR operation are suggested to somewhat recover its hypereutrophic state in the short-term. However, strategic long-term recovery plans are required to reduce the transition of nutrients from the watershed to the SDR. View Full-Text
Keywords: Carlson trophic state index; limiting factor; dam reservoir; fertilizers; Iran Carlson trophic state index; limiting factor; dam reservoir; fertilizers; Iran
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MDPI and ACS Style

Noori, R.; Ansari, E.; Jeong, Y.-W.; Aradpour, S.; Maghrebi, M.; Hosseinzadeh, M.; Bateni, S.M. Hyper-Nutrient Enrichment Status in the Sabalan Lake, Iran. Water 2021, 13, 2874.

AMA Style

Noori R, Ansari E, Jeong Y-W, Aradpour S, Maghrebi M, Hosseinzadeh M, Bateni SM. Hyper-Nutrient Enrichment Status in the Sabalan Lake, Iran. Water. 2021; 13(20):2874.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Noori, Roohollah, Elmira Ansari, Yong-Wook Jeong, Saber Aradpour, Mohsen Maghrebi, Majid Hosseinzadeh, and Sayed M. Bateni. 2021. "Hyper-Nutrient Enrichment Status in the Sabalan Lake, Iran" Water 13, no. 20: 2874.

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