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Review

Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) Inhibitors as Emergent Environmental Contaminants: Advanced Remediation and Analytical Methods

1
Department of Sciences, University of Basilicata, Via dell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza, Italy
2
Gnosis by Lesaffre, Research Laboratory, 75015 Pisticci, Italy
3
Department of Geography, Environmental Management & Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg 2092, South Africa
4
Department of European Cultures (DICEM), University of Basilicata, 75100 Matera, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jiangyong Hu
Water 2021, 13(20), 2859; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202859
Received: 2 September 2021 / Revised: 2 October 2021 / Accepted: 9 October 2021 / Published: 13 October 2021
Pharmaceuticals, fundamental in therapy and the prevention of known pathologies, are responsible for environmental pollution. These substances, called “emerging contaminants,” are harmful to human health because they enter the environment in quantities exceeding the natural self-capacity purification of the ecosystems. Furthermore, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) cannot remove these substances, which can undergo chemical/biological transformations in the environment, thus forming by-products, sometimes more toxic than the parent molecules; successively, they move into rivers and could reach the drinking water supplies. All these phenomena represent a severe public health problem. Therefore, the Water Framework Directive by European Union imposed the monitoring of drugs’ levels in aqueous matrices. Every two years, the EU carefully updates the list of potential water pollutants, called the Watch List, including pharmaceuticals, to evaluate their risk on the aquatic environment. The last Commission Implementing Decision (EU 2018/840) comprises several substances of primary concern. In addition, the scientific community is giving particular attention to other pharmaceuticals not yet on the Watch list, whose markets are in growth; particularly, the Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors used for the pharmaceutical treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men. This review discusses the presence of PDE-5 inhibitors in environmental systems, their toxic effects, the different kinds of removal, and the analytical methods normally adopted for their detection. In addition, the study helps figure out the best possible strategy to tackle pharmaceutical pollution by using analytical and advanced diagnostic methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors; environment contamination; wastewater plants (WWTPs); advanced oxidation process (AOP); eco-toxicity; analytical methods phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors; environment contamination; wastewater plants (WWTPs); advanced oxidation process (AOP); eco-toxicity; analytical methods
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bianco, G.; Foti, L.; Pascale, R.; Lelario, F.; Coviello, D.; Brienza, M.; Bufo, S.A.; Scrano, L. Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) Inhibitors as Emergent Environmental Contaminants: Advanced Remediation and Analytical Methods. Water 2021, 13, 2859. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202859

AMA Style

Bianco G, Foti L, Pascale R, Lelario F, Coviello D, Brienza M, Bufo SA, Scrano L. Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) Inhibitors as Emergent Environmental Contaminants: Advanced Remediation and Analytical Methods. Water. 2021; 13(20):2859. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202859

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bianco, Giuliana, Luca Foti, Raffaella Pascale, Filomena Lelario, Donatella Coviello, Monica Brienza, Sabino A. Bufo, and Laura Scrano. 2021. "Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) Inhibitors as Emergent Environmental Contaminants: Advanced Remediation and Analytical Methods" Water 13, no. 20: 2859. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202859

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