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Article

Investigating Controls on Barrier Island Overwash and Evolution during Extreme Storms

1
Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, NC 28403, USA
2
Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, NC 28403, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Carla Faraci and Claudio Iuppa
Water 2021, 13(20), 2829; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202829
Received: 23 September 2021 / Revised: 6 October 2021 / Accepted: 8 October 2021 / Published: 12 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave-Driven Processes in the Coastal Zones)
Over short periods of time, extreme storms can significantly alter barrier island morphology, increasing the vulnerability of coastal habitats and communities relative to future storms. These impacts are complex and the result of interactions between oceanographic conditions and the geomorphic, geological, and ecological characteristics of the island. A 2D XBeach model was developed and compared to observations in order to study these interactions along an undeveloped barrier island near the landfall of Hurricane Florence in 2018. Beachface water levels during the storm were obtained from two cross-shore arrays of pressure sensors for comparison to model hydrodynamics. Aerial drone imagery was used to derive pre-storm and post-storm elevation data in order to quantify spatially varying erosion and overwash. Sediment grain size was measured in multiple locations, and we estimated spatially varying friction by using Sentinel-2 satellite imagery. The high spatial and temporal resolution of satellite imagery provided an efficient method for incorporating pre-storm spatially varying land cover. While previous studies have focused on the use of spatially varying friction, we found that the utilization of local median grain sizes and full directional wave spectra was critical to reproducing observed overwash extent. View Full-Text
Keywords: barrier islands; overwash; grain size; satellite land cover; nearshore hydrodynamics; numerical modeling barrier islands; overwash; grain size; satellite land cover; nearshore hydrodynamics; numerical modeling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Beckman, J.N.; Long, J.W.; Hawkes, A.D.; Leonard, L.A.; Ghoneim, E. Investigating Controls on Barrier Island Overwash and Evolution during Extreme Storms. Water 2021, 13, 2829. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202829

AMA Style

Beckman JN, Long JW, Hawkes AD, Leonard LA, Ghoneim E. Investigating Controls on Barrier Island Overwash and Evolution during Extreme Storms. Water. 2021; 13(20):2829. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202829

Chicago/Turabian Style

Beckman, Jesse N., Joseph W. Long, Andrea D. Hawkes, Lynn A. Leonard, and Eman Ghoneim. 2021. "Investigating Controls on Barrier Island Overwash and Evolution during Extreme Storms" Water 13, no. 20: 2829. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202829

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