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Article

Distribution Patterns of Benthic Foraminifera in Fish Farming Areas (Corsica, France): Implications for the Implementation of Biotic Indices in Biomonitoring Studies

1
Laboratoire d’Océanologie et de Géosciences (LOG), UMR 8187, Station Marine de Wimereux, University Lille, CNRS, Université Littoral Côte d’Opale, 59000 Lille, France
2
Laboratory of Recent and Fossil Bio-Indicators (LPG-BIAF), UMR CNRS 6112, University Angers, 2 Boulevard Lavoisier, CEDEX 01, 49045 Angers, France
3
Station de Recherches Sous-Marines et Océanographiques (STARESO), Pointe Revellata, 20260 Corse, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Institut Universitaire Mer et Littoral, Université de Nantes, EA2160 Mer Molécules Santé, 2 Rue de la Houssinière BP92208, CEDEX 3, 44035 Nantes, France.
Academic Editor: Rui Cortes
Water 2021, 13(20), 2821; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202821
Received: 25 September 2021 / Revised: 8 October 2021 / Accepted: 8 October 2021 / Published: 11 October 2021
Corsican marine aquaculture is one of the highest contributors of fish production in France, which may result in environmental perturbations caused by organic matter (OM) accumulation under fish farms and impacting natural communities. This study aimed to (1) characterise the environmental conditions at two different fish farms, (2) monitor the response of benthic foraminiferal species to this activity, and (3) assess the accuracy of existing foraminiferal biotic indices. In 2017, sea floor sediment was sampled in transects from two Corsican fish farms for living foraminiferal and sedimentary analyses. Four indices were calculated and compared: exp(H′bc), Foram-AMBI, Foram Stress Index and TSI-Med. A significant increase in total organic carbon (TOC) has been shown, mainly below the fish cages. Communities were characterized by a shift from high density, opportunistic and tolerant species under the cages to lower densities and more sensitive species further away. According to their distribution patterns along the TOC gradient, we propose to update the ecological group classification of seven species to improve Foram-AMBI’s accuracy and sensitivity: Triloculina oblonga and Quinqueloculina lamarckiana to Ecological Group (EG) I; Rosalina bradyi to EGIII; and Bolivina dilatata, Bulimina aculeata and Quinqueloculina stalkeri to EGIV. We recommend prioritising the use of TSI-Med and Foram-AMBI with the updated list to assess ecological quality in coastal waters of the Mediterranean Sea. View Full-Text
Keywords: benthic foraminifera; aquaculture; Mediterranean Sea; bio-monitoring; total organic carbon; biotic index; diversity index; ecological groups; tolerant species benthic foraminifera; aquaculture; Mediterranean Sea; bio-monitoring; total organic carbon; biotic index; diversity index; ecological groups; tolerant species
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dubois, A.; Barras, C.; Pavard, J.-C.; Donnay, A.; Béatrix, M.; Bouchet, V.M.P. Distribution Patterns of Benthic Foraminifera in Fish Farming Areas (Corsica, France): Implications for the Implementation of Biotic Indices in Biomonitoring Studies. Water 2021, 13, 2821. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202821

AMA Style

Dubois A, Barras C, Pavard J-C, Donnay A, Béatrix M, Bouchet VMP. Distribution Patterns of Benthic Foraminifera in Fish Farming Areas (Corsica, France): Implications for the Implementation of Biotic Indices in Biomonitoring Studies. Water. 2021; 13(20):2821. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202821

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dubois, Antoine, Christine Barras, Jean-Charles Pavard, Annick Donnay, Melvin Béatrix, and Vincent M.P. Bouchet 2021. "Distribution Patterns of Benthic Foraminifera in Fish Farming Areas (Corsica, France): Implications for the Implementation of Biotic Indices in Biomonitoring Studies" Water 13, no. 20: 2821. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202821

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