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The Water Footprint of the United States
Open AccessReview

A Review of Water Stress and Water Footprint Accounting

Integrated Research on Energy Environment and Society (IREES), Energy Sustainability Research Institute Groningen (ESRIG), University of Groningen, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2021, 13(2), 201;
Received: 28 October 2020 / Revised: 11 January 2021 / Accepted: 12 January 2021 / Published: 15 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Memory of Prof. Arjen Y. Hoekstra)
Production and consumption activities deplete freshwater, generate water pollution and may further lead to water stress. The accurate measurement of water stress is a precondition for sustainable water management. This paper reviews the literature on physical water stress induced by blue and green water use and by water pollution. Specifically, we clarify several key concepts (i.e., water stress, scarcity, availability, withdrawal, consumption and the water footprint) for water stress evaluation, and review physical water stress indicators in terms of quantity and quality. Furthermore, we identify research gaps in physical water stress assessment, related to environmental flow requirements, return flows, outsourcing of water pollution and standardization of terminology and approaches. These research gaps can serve as venues for further research dealing with the evaluation and reduction of water stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: water footprint; water stress; water scarcity; water quality water footprint; water stress; water scarcity; water quality
MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, D.; Hubacek, K.; Shan, Y.; Gerbens-Leenes, W.; Liu, J. A Review of Water Stress and Water Footprint Accounting. Water 2021, 13, 201.

AMA Style

Wang D, Hubacek K, Shan Y, Gerbens-Leenes W, Liu J. A Review of Water Stress and Water Footprint Accounting. Water. 2021; 13(2):201.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Dan; Hubacek, Klaus; Shan, Yuli; Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Liu, Junguo. 2021. "A Review of Water Stress and Water Footprint Accounting" Water 13, no. 2: 201.

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