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Open AccessArticle

Barrier Islands Resilience to Extreme Events: Do Earthquake and Tsunami Play a Role?

1
Tsunami and Disaster Mitigation Research Center (TDMRC), Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23233, Indonesia
2
Civil Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
3
Geography Department, University of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, 75005 Paris, France
4
Laboratoire de Geographie Physique, UMR 8591 CNRS, 1 Place A. Briand, 92190 Meudon, France
5
Centre for Advanced Modelling and Geospatial Information Systems (CAMGIS), University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia
6
Center of Excellence for Climate Change Research, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80234, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
7
Earth Observation Center, Institute of Climate Change, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600 UKM, Selangor, Malaysia
8
Post-Graduate School, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
9
Water Engineering & Management (WEM), Faculty of Engineering & Technology, University of Twente, 7522 NB Enschede, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2021, 13(2), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020178
Received: 30 October 2020 / Revised: 15 December 2020 / Accepted: 8 January 2021 / Published: 13 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes and Landforms of Terrestrial and Marine Areas)
Barrier islands are indicators of coastal resilience. Previous studies have proven that barrier islands are surprisingly resilient to extreme storm events. At present, little is known about barrier systems’ resilience to seismic events triggering tsunamis, co-seismic subsidence, and liquefaction. The objective of this study is, therefore, to investigate the morphological resilience of the barrier islands in responding to those secondary effects of seismic activity of the Sumatra–Andaman subduction zone and the Great Sumatran Fault system. Spatial analysis in Geographical Information Systems (GIS) was utilized to detect shoreline changes from the multi-source datasets of centennial time scale, including old topographic maps and satellite images from 1898 until 2017. Additionally, the earthquake and tsunami records and established conceptual models of storm effects to barrier systems, are corroborated to support possible forcing factors analysis. Two selected coastal sections possess different geomorphic settings are investigated: (1) Lambadeuk, the coast overlying the Sumatran Fault system, (2) Kuala Gigieng, located in between two segments of the Sumatran Fault System. Seven consecutive pairs of comparable old topographic maps and satellite images reveal remarkable morphological changes in the form of breaching, landward migrating, sinking, and complete disappearing in different periods of observation. While semi-protected embayed Lambadeuk is not resilient to repeated co-seismic land subsidence, the wave-dominated Kuala Gigieng coast is not resilient to the combination of tsunami and liquefaction events. The mega-tsunami triggered by the 2004 earthquake led to irreversible changes in the barrier islands on both coasts. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sumatra; barrier island; earthquake; tsunami; land subsidence; liquefaction; morphology resilience; GIS Sumatra; barrier island; earthquake; tsunami; land subsidence; liquefaction; morphology resilience; GIS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Meilianda, E.; Lavigne, F.; Pradhan, B.; Wassmer, P.; Darusman, D.; Dohmen-Janssen, M. Barrier Islands Resilience to Extreme Events: Do Earthquake and Tsunami Play a Role? Water 2021, 13, 178. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020178

AMA Style

Meilianda E, Lavigne F, Pradhan B, Wassmer P, Darusman D, Dohmen-Janssen M. Barrier Islands Resilience to Extreme Events: Do Earthquake and Tsunami Play a Role? Water. 2021; 13(2):178. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020178

Chicago/Turabian Style

Meilianda, Ella; Lavigne, Franck; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Wassmer, Patrick; Darusman, Darusman; Dohmen-Janssen, Marjolein. 2021. "Barrier Islands Resilience to Extreme Events: Do Earthquake and Tsunami Play a Role?" Water 13, no. 2: 178. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020178

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