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Different Waters for Different Performances: Can We Imagine Sport-Related Natural Mineral Spring Waters?

1
Department of Medicine & Surgery (DiMeC), University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43126 Parma, Italy
2
Italian Foundation for Scientific Research in Balneotherapy (FoRST), 00198 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Water 2021, 13(2), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020166
Received: 2 December 2020 / Revised: 4 January 2021 / Accepted: 8 January 2021 / Published: 12 January 2021
Preserving the hydration status means to balance daily fluids and salt losses with gains, where the losses depend on several physiological and environmental factors. Especially for athletes, these losses could be relevant and negatively influence the performance: therefore, their hydro-saline status must be preserved with personalized pre- and rehydration plans all along the performance period. Scientific literature in this field is mainly dedicated to artificial sport drinks. Different territories in most world areas are rich in drinking natural mineral spring waters with saline compositions that reflect their geological origin and that are used for human health (often under medical prescription). However, scarce scientific attention has been dedicated to the use of these waters for athletes. We therefore reviewed the existing literature from the innovative viewpoint of matching spring water mineral compositions with different athletic performances and their hydro-saline requirements. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydration status; natural mineral waters; spring waters; performance hydration status; natural mineral waters; spring waters; performance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Presta, V.; Ambrosini, L.; Carubbi, C.; Masselli, E.; Mirandola, P.; Arcari, M.L.; Gobbi, G.; Vitale, M. Different Waters for Different Performances: Can We Imagine Sport-Related Natural Mineral Spring Waters? Water 2021, 13, 166. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020166

AMA Style

Presta V, Ambrosini L, Carubbi C, Masselli E, Mirandola P, Arcari ML, Gobbi G, Vitale M. Different Waters for Different Performances: Can We Imagine Sport-Related Natural Mineral Spring Waters? Water. 2021; 13(2):166. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020166

Chicago/Turabian Style

Presta, Valentina; Ambrosini, Luca; Carubbi, Cecilia; Masselli, Elena; Mirandola, Prisco; Arcari, Maria L.; Gobbi, Giuliana; Vitale, Marco. 2021. "Different Waters for Different Performances: Can We Imagine Sport-Related Natural Mineral Spring Waters?" Water 13, no. 2: 166. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020166

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