Machine Learning (ML) algorithms provide an alternative for the prediction of pollutant concentration. We compared eight ML algorithms (Linear Regression (LR), uniform weighting k-Nearest Neighbor (UW-kNN), variable weighting k-Nearest Neighbor (VW-kNN), Support Vector Regression (SVR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Regression Tree (RT), Random Forest (RF), and Adaptive Boosting (AdB)) to evaluate the feasibility of ML approaches for estimation of Total Suspended Solids (TSS) using the national stormwater quality database. Six factors were used as features to train the algorithms with TSS concentration as the target parameter: Drainage area, land use, percent of imperviousness, rainfall depth, runoff volume, and antecedent dry days. Comparisons among the ML methods demonstrated a higher degree of variability in model performance, with the coefficient of determination (R2
) and Nash–Sutcliffe (NSE) values ranging from 0.15 to 0.77. The Root Mean Square (RMSE) values ranged from 110 mg/L to 220 mg/L. The best fit was obtained using the AdB and RF models, with R2
values of 0.77 and 0.74 in the training step and 0.67 and 0.64 in the prediction step. The NSE values were 0.76 and 0.72 in the training step and 0.67 and 0.62 in the prediction step. The predictions from AdB were sensitive to all six factors. However, the sensitivity level was variable.
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