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Article

Regulation of Vegetation and Evapotranspiration by Water Level Fluctuation in Shallow Lakes

by 1,2,*, 3,*, 1,2, 1,2, 1,2, 1,2, 1,2 and 1,2
1
State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
2
Key Laboratory for Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
3
Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Ciraolo
Water 2021, 13(19), 2651; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192651
Received: 2 September 2021 / Revised: 24 September 2021 / Accepted: 24 September 2021 / Published: 26 September 2021
Water level fluctuations play a critical role in regulating vegetation distribution, composition, cover and richness, which ultimately affect evapotranspiration. In this study, we first explore water level fluctuations and associated impacts on vegetation, after which we assess evapotranspiration (ET) under different water levels. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used to estimate the fractional vegetation cover (Fv), while topography- and vegetation-based surface-energy partitioning algorithms (TVET model) and potential evaporation (Ev) were used to calculate ET and water evaporation (Ep). Results show that: (1) water levels were dramatically affected by the combined effect of ecological water transfer and climate change and exhibited significant decreasing trends with a slope of −0.011 m a−2; and (2) as predicted, there was a correlation between water level fluctuation at an annual scale with Phragmites australis (P. australis) cover and open-water area. Water levels also had a controlling effect on Fv values, an increase in annual water levels first increasing and then decreasing Fv. However, a negative correlation was found between Fv values and water levels during initial plant growth stages. (iii) ET, which varied under different water levels at an annual scale, showed different partition into transpiration from P. australis and evaporation from open-water area and soil with alterations between vegetation and open water. All findings indicated that water level fluctuations controlled biological and ecological processes, and their structural and functional characteristics. This study consequently recommends that specifically-focused ecological water regulations (e.g., duration, timing, frequency) should be enacted to maintain the integrity of wetland ecosystems for wetland restoration. View Full-Text
Keywords: shallow lake; water level fluctuation; fractional vegetation cover; evapotranspiration shallow lake; water level fluctuation; fractional vegetation cover; evapotranspiration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Q.; Liang, L.; Yuan, X.; Yan, S.; Li, M.; Li, S.; Wang, X.; Li, C. Regulation of Vegetation and Evapotranspiration by Water Level Fluctuation in Shallow Lakes. Water 2021, 13, 2651. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192651

AMA Style

Liu Q, Liang L, Yuan X, Yan S, Li M, Li S, Wang X, Li C. Regulation of Vegetation and Evapotranspiration by Water Level Fluctuation in Shallow Lakes. Water. 2021; 13(19):2651. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192651

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Qiang, Liqiao Liang, Xiaomin Yuan, Sirui Yan, Miao Li, Shuzhen Li, Xuan Wang, and Chunhui Li. 2021. "Regulation of Vegetation and Evapotranspiration by Water Level Fluctuation in Shallow Lakes" Water 13, no. 19: 2651. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192651

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