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Article

Multi-Scale Analysis of the Dependence of Water Quality on Land Use Using Linear and Mixed Models

Department of Agricultural & Biological Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sophia Barinova
Water 2021, 13(19), 2618; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192618
Received: 31 August 2021 / Revised: 19 September 2021 / Accepted: 20 September 2021 / Published: 23 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Water Quality)
Land use influences water quality in streams at different spatial scales and varies in time and space. Water quality has long been associated with agricultural and urban land uses in catchments. The effects of developed, forest, pasture, and agricultural land use on nitrogen, nitrate, and nitrite (NNN); total phosphorus (TP); total suspended solids (TSS); chemical oxygen demand (COD); dissolved oxygen (DO) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) concentrations and their sensitivity were quantified to spatial pattern differences. The linear mixed modeling framework was used to examine the importance of spatial extent on models with water quality parameters as the response variable and land use types as the predictor variable. The results indicated that land use categories on different water quality parameters were significant and dependent on the selected spatial scales. Land use exhibited a strong association with total phosphorus and total suspended solids for close reach distances. Phosphorus is not highly soluble, and it binds strongly to fine soil particles, which are transported by water via runoff. Nitrogen, nitrate, and nitrite, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations were better predicted for further reach distances, such as 45 or 50 km, where the best model of nitrogen, nitrate, and nitrite is consistent with the high mobility of NO3. View Full-Text
Keywords: land use; linear mixed model; spatial scale effects; water quality land use; linear mixed model; spatial scale effects; water quality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vera Mercado, J.A.; Engel, B. Multi-Scale Analysis of the Dependence of Water Quality on Land Use Using Linear and Mixed Models. Water 2021, 13, 2618. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192618

AMA Style

Vera Mercado JA, Engel B. Multi-Scale Analysis of the Dependence of Water Quality on Land Use Using Linear and Mixed Models. Water. 2021; 13(19):2618. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192618

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vera Mercado, Johann A., and Bernard Engel. 2021. "Multi-Scale Analysis of the Dependence of Water Quality on Land Use Using Linear and Mixed Models" Water 13, no. 19: 2618. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192618

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