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Article

Dolomitization of Paleozoic Successions, Huron Domain of Southern Ontario, Canada: Fluid Flow and Dolomite Evolution

1
School of the Environment, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
2
Nuclear Waste Management Organization, 22 St. Clair Avenue, East, Toronto, ON M4T 2S3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2021, 13(17), 2449; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172449
Received: 3 August 2021 / Revised: 29 August 2021 / Accepted: 30 August 2021 / Published: 6 September 2021
Integrated petrographic, isotopic, fluid inclusion microthermometry, and geochemical analyses of Paleozoic carbonate successions from multiple boreholes within the Huron Domain, southern Ontario were conducted to characterize the diagenetic history and fluid composition, on a regional scale, and evaluate the nature and origin of dolomitized beds. Multiple generations of non-stochiometric dolomite have been observed. These dolomites occur as both replacement (D1 and D2) and cement (saddle dolomite; SD) and formed either at near-surface to shallow burial zone (D1) or intermediate burial (D2 and SD). Petrographic and geochemical data of dolomite types and calcite cement suggest that these carbonates have experienced multiple fluid events that affected dolomite formation and other diagenetic processes. Cambrian and Ordovician strata have two possibly isolated diagenetic fluid systems; an earlier fluid system that is characterized by a pronounced negative shift in oxygen and carbon isotopic composition, more radiogenic Sr ratios, warm and saline signatures, higher average ∑REE compared to warm water marine brachiopods, negative La anomaly, and positive Ce anomaly; and a later Ordovician system, characterized by less negative shifts in oxygen and carbon isotopes, comparable Th, hypersaline, a less radiogenic, less negative La anomaly, and primarily positive Ce anomaly but also higher average ∑REE compared to warm water marine brachiopods. Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian Sr isotopic ratios, however, show seawater composition of their respective age as the primary source of diagenetic fluids with minor rock/water interactions. In contrast, the isotopic data of the overlying Silurian and Devonian carbonates show overlaps between δ13C and δ18O values. However, δ18O values show evidence of dolomite recrystallization. D2 shows wide Th values and medium to high salinity values. Higher Th and salinity are observed in SD in the Silurian carbonates, which suggest the involvement of localized fluxes of hydrothermal fluids during its formation during Paleozoic orogenesis. Geochemical proxies suggest that in both age groups the diagenetic fluids were originally of coeval seawater composition, subsequently modified via water-rock interaction possibly related to brines, which were modified by the dissolution of Silurian evaporites from the Salina series. The integration of the obtained data in the present study demonstrates the linkage between fluid flux history, fluid compartmentalization, and related diagenesis during the regional tectonic evolution of the Michigan Basin. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluid flow; dolomitization; Paleozoic; Huron Domain fluid flow; dolomitization; Paleozoic; Huron Domain
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Aasm, I.S.; Crowe, R.; Tortola, M. Dolomitization of Paleozoic Successions, Huron Domain of Southern Ontario, Canada: Fluid Flow and Dolomite Evolution. Water 2021, 13, 2449. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172449

AMA Style

Al-Aasm IS, Crowe R, Tortola M. Dolomitization of Paleozoic Successions, Huron Domain of Southern Ontario, Canada: Fluid Flow and Dolomite Evolution. Water. 2021; 13(17):2449. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172449

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al-Aasm, Ihsan S., Richard Crowe, and Marco Tortola. 2021. "Dolomitization of Paleozoic Successions, Huron Domain of Southern Ontario, Canada: Fluid Flow and Dolomite Evolution" Water 13, no. 17: 2449. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172449

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