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Article

Hydrogeophysical Assessment of the Critical Zone below a Golf Course Irrigated with Reclaimed Water close to Volcanic Caldera

1
Department of Mineralogy, Petrology and Applied Geology, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
2
Water Research Institute, Universitat de Barcelona, 08001 Barcelona, Spain
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Instituto Universitario de Estudios Ambientales y Recursos Naturales (i-UNAT), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
4
Department of Biology, Health and Environment, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Konstantin Titov and Damien Jougnot
Water 2021, 13(17), 2400; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172400
Received: 3 August 2021 / Revised: 24 August 2021 / Accepted: 27 August 2021 / Published: 31 August 2021
The geometry and the hydraulic properties of the unsaturated zone is often difficult to evaluate from traditional soil sampling techniques. Soil samples typically provide only data of the upper layers and boreholes are expensive and only provide spotted information. Non-destructive geophysical methods and among them, electrical resistivity tomography can be applied in complex geological environments such as volcanic areas, where lavas and unconsolidated pyroclastic deposits dominate. They have a wide variability of hydraulic properties due to textural characteristics and modification processes suh as compaction, fracturation and weathering. To characterize the subsurface geology below the golf course of Bandama (Gran Canaria) a detailed electrical resistivity tomography survey has been conducted. This technique allowed us to define the geometry of the geological formations because of their high electrical resistivity contrasts. Subsequently, undisturbed soil and pyroclastic deposits samples were taken in representative outcrops for quantifying the hydraulic conductivity in the laboratory where the parametric electrical resistivity was measured in the field. A statistical correlation between the two variables has been obtained and a 3D model transit time of water infiltration through the vadose zone has been built to assess the vulnerability of the aquifers located below the golf course irrigated with reclaimed water. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogeophysics; electrical resistivity tomography; hydraulic conductivity; volcanic aquifer; Gran Canaria hydrogeophysics; electrical resistivity tomography; hydraulic conductivity; volcanic aquifer; Gran Canaria
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sendrós, A.; Himi, M.; Estévez, E.; Lovera, R.; Palacios-Diaz, M.P.; Tapias, J.C.; Cabrera, M.C.; Pérez-Torrado, F.J.; Casas, A. Hydrogeophysical Assessment of the Critical Zone below a Golf Course Irrigated with Reclaimed Water close to Volcanic Caldera. Water 2021, 13, 2400. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172400

AMA Style

Sendrós A, Himi M, Estévez E, Lovera R, Palacios-Diaz MP, Tapias JC, Cabrera MC, Pérez-Torrado FJ, Casas A. Hydrogeophysical Assessment of the Critical Zone below a Golf Course Irrigated with Reclaimed Water close to Volcanic Caldera. Water. 2021; 13(17):2400. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172400

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sendrós, Alex, Mahjoub Himi, Esmeralda Estévez, Raúl Lovera, M. P. Palacios-Diaz, Josefina C. Tapias, M. C. Cabrera, Francisco J. Pérez-Torrado, and Albert Casas. 2021. "Hydrogeophysical Assessment of the Critical Zone below a Golf Course Irrigated with Reclaimed Water close to Volcanic Caldera" Water 13, no. 17: 2400. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172400

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