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Review

Tools for Edible Cities: A Review of Tools for Planning and Assessing Edible Nature-Based Solutions

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SEMIDE/EMWIS, Technical Unit of the Euro-Mediterranean Water Information System, BP23- Place Sophie Laffitte, Sophia Antipolis, 06560 Valbonne, France
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Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Carrer Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona, Spain
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University of Girona, Plaça de Sant Domènec 3, 17004 Girona, Spain
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Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Jamova 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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School of Architecture, Technology and Engineering, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Mithras House, Brighton BN2 4AT, UK
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LEQUIA, Institute of the Environment, Universitat de Girona, C/Maria Aurèlia Capmany 69, 17003 Girona, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Richard C. Smardon
Water 2021, 13(17), 2366; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172366
Received: 30 July 2021 / Accepted: 23 August 2021 / Published: 28 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Circular Cities)
In the last five years, European research and innovation programmes have prioritised the development of online catalogues and tools (handbooks, models, etc.) to facilitate the implementation and monitoring of Nature-Based Solutions (NBS). However, only a few catalogues and toolkits within European programmes are directly related to mainstreaming of NBS for food production (i.e., edible NBS). Therefore, the main aim of this paper is to present existing NBS tools through the eyes of productive urban landscapes. We reviewed 32 projects related to NBS and 50 tools were identified and characterised. Then, the six tools already available and provided indicators were further analysed in terms of their format and knowledge domains. Our main conclusion demonstrates that there is a lack of tools capable of supporting users for planning and implementing edible NBS; calculating the food potential of a city and/or of individual edible NBS, including the needed resources for implementation and operation (water, nutrients, energy); and assessing their urban design value, environmental and socio-economic impacts. Moreover, when they do exist, there is a resistance to share the models and equations behind the tools to allow other projects to reuse or validate them, a fact which is contrary to the open science principles upheld by many public research agencies. View Full-Text
Keywords: nature-based solutions; productive urban landscapes; decision support systems; edible cities; urban agriculture; circular economy nature-based solutions; productive urban landscapes; decision support systems; edible cities; urban agriculture; circular economy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mino, E.; Pueyo-Ros, J.; Škerjanec, M.; Castellar, J.A.C.; Viljoen, A.; Istenič, D.; Atanasova, N.; Bohn, K.; Comas, J. Tools for Edible Cities: A Review of Tools for Planning and Assessing Edible Nature-Based Solutions. Water 2021, 13, 2366. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172366

AMA Style

Mino E, Pueyo-Ros J, Škerjanec M, Castellar JAC, Viljoen A, Istenič D, Atanasova N, Bohn K, Comas J. Tools for Edible Cities: A Review of Tools for Planning and Assessing Edible Nature-Based Solutions. Water. 2021; 13(17):2366. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172366

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mino, Eric, Josep Pueyo-Ros, Mateja Škerjanec, Joana A.C. Castellar, André Viljoen, Darja Istenič, Nataša Atanasova, Katrin Bohn, and Joaquim Comas. 2021. "Tools for Edible Cities: A Review of Tools for Planning and Assessing Edible Nature-Based Solutions" Water 13, no. 17: 2366. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172366

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