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Tools for Edible Cities: A Review of Tools for Planning and Assessing Edible Nature-Based Solutions
Article

Nature-Based Solutions for Agriculture in Circular Cities: Challenges, Gaps, and Opportunities

1
Institute for Sanitary Engineering and Water Pollution Control (SIG), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Muthgasse 18, 1190 Wien, Austria
2
Urban Greening and Biosystems Engineering Research Group (NatUrIB), Departamento de Ingeniería Aeroespacial y Mecánica de Fluidos-Área de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Agronómica (ETSIA), Universidad de Sevilla, Ctra. de Utrera km. 1, 41013 Seville, Spain
3
Ecological Engineering Centre, Institute of Natural Resource Sciences, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Grüentalstrasse 14, 8820 Waedenswil, Switzerland
4
Centre for Spatial, Environmental and Cultural Politics, School of Architecture and Design, University of Brighton, Mithras House, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4AT, UK
5
Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture And Food (LEAF), Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal
6
Interdisciplinary Center of Social Sciences (CICS.NOVA), Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Av. de Berna 26-C, 1069-061 Lisboa, Portugal
7
Food Institute, Kaunas University of Technology, Radvilenu 19C, LT 50524 Kaunas, Lithuania
8
Division Food Production and Society, Department Horticulture, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomic Research (NIBIO), Reddalsveien 215, 4886 Grimstad, Norway
9
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), Müggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin, Germany
10
Faculty of Architecture, RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 1, 52062 Aachen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
A.C.-M. and R.P.-M.: These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Marie-Christine Gromaire
Water 2021, 13(18), 2565; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182565
Received: 29 July 2021 / Revised: 6 September 2021 / Accepted: 13 September 2021 / Published: 17 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Circular Cities)
Urban agriculture (UA) plays a key role in the circular metabolism of cities, as it can use water resources, nutrients, and other materials recovered from streams that currently leave the city as solid waste or as wastewater to produce new food and biomass. The ecosystem services of urban green spaces and infrastructures and the productivity of specific urban agricultural technologies have been discussed in literature. However, the understanding of input and output (I/O) streams of different nature-based solutions (NBS) is not yet sufficient to identify the challenges and opportunities they offer for strengthening circularity in UA. We propose a series of agriculture NBS, which, implemented in cities, would address circularity challenges in different urban spaces. To identify the challenges, gaps, and opportunities related to the enhancement of resources management of agriculture NBS, we evaluated NBS units, interventions, and supporting units, and analyzed I/O streams as links of urban circularity. A broader understanding of the food-related urban streams is important to recover resources and adapt the distribution system accordingly. As a result, we pinpointed the gaps that hinder the development of UA as a potential opportunity within the framework of the Circular City. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban agriculture; nutrient streams; urban food systems; urban circularity challenges; resources management; urban sustainability urban agriculture; nutrient streams; urban food systems; urban circularity challenges; resources management; urban sustainability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Canet-Martí, A.; Pineda-Martos, R.; Junge, R.; Bohn, K.; Paço, T.A.; Delgado, C.; Alenčikienė, G.; Skar, S.L.G.; Baganz, G.F.M. Nature-Based Solutions for Agriculture in Circular Cities: Challenges, Gaps, and Opportunities. Water 2021, 13, 2565. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182565

AMA Style

Canet-Martí A, Pineda-Martos R, Junge R, Bohn K, Paço TA, Delgado C, Alenčikienė G, Skar SLG, Baganz GFM. Nature-Based Solutions for Agriculture in Circular Cities: Challenges, Gaps, and Opportunities. Water. 2021; 13(18):2565. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182565

Chicago/Turabian Style

Canet-Martí, Alba, Rocío Pineda-Martos, Ranka Junge, Katrin Bohn, Teresa A. Paço, Cecilia Delgado, Gitana Alenčikienė, Siv L.G. Skar, and Gösta F.M. Baganz 2021. "Nature-Based Solutions for Agriculture in Circular Cities: Challenges, Gaps, and Opportunities" Water 13, no. 18: 2565. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182565

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