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Hydrodynamics and Free-Flow Characteristics of Piano Key Weirs with Different Plan Shapes
Article

Apron and Cutoff Wall Scour Protection for Piano Key Weirs

1
Utah Water Research Laboratory, Department Civil and Environmental Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84321, USA
2
DESTEC-Department of Energy, Systems, Territory and Construction Engineering, University of Pisa, 56122 Pisa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jorge Matos, Sebastien Erpicum and Anton J. Schleiss
Water 2021, 13(17), 2332; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172332
Received: 16 June 2021 / Revised: 17 August 2021 / Accepted: 20 August 2021 / Published: 26 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Spillway Hydraulics: From Theory to Practice)
Piano key (PK) weirs are used in a variety of flow control structure applications, including spillway crests and open channel diversion structures. However, to the best of authors’ knowledge, structure-specific design guidance for scour mitigation is still needed. To fill this gap of knowledge, a systematic experimental campaign was conducted by testing different configurations of horizontal aprons with a cutoff wall. Protection structures were located at the toe of the PK weir. Namely, experiments were performed at large-scale to assess the effect of three apron lengths on downstream scour hole geometry under different hydraulic conditions. It was observed that a horizontal apron deflects the plunging jets originating from the PK weir, thus significantly reducing scour. Experimental evidence allowed corroboration that significant scour depth reduction occurs for an apron length 1.5 times the weir height, with longer aprons found to provide marginal benefits. Finally, also provided herein are tools to estimate the main scour characteristics and help practitioners in optimizing apron design. View Full-Text
Keywords: horizontal apron; local scour; PK weir; scour countermeasure; vertical cutoff wall horizontal apron; local scour; PK weir; scour countermeasure; vertical cutoff wall
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lantz, W.; Crookston, B.M.; Palermo, M. Apron and Cutoff Wall Scour Protection for Piano Key Weirs. Water 2021, 13, 2332. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172332

AMA Style

Lantz W, Crookston BM, Palermo M. Apron and Cutoff Wall Scour Protection for Piano Key Weirs. Water. 2021; 13(17):2332. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172332

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lantz, Wyatt, Brian M. Crookston, and Michele Palermo. 2021. "Apron and Cutoff Wall Scour Protection for Piano Key Weirs" Water 13, no. 17: 2332. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172332

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