Next Article in Journal
Laboratory Analysis of Debris Flow Characteristics and Berm Performance
Next Article in Special Issue
Effective Management of Scarce Water Resources: From Antiquity to Today and into the Future
Previous Article in Journal
On the Validity of the Null Current Assumption for Modeling Sorptive Reactive Transport and Electro-Diffusion in Porous Media
Previous Article in Special Issue
Rise and Fall of the Grand Canal in the Ancient Kaifeng City of China: Role of the Grand Canal and Water Supply in Urban and Regional Development
 
 
Review

Desalination: From Ancient to Present and Future

1
HAO-Demeter, Agricultural Research Institution of Crete, 71300 Iraklion, Greece
2
Union of Hellenic Water Supply and Sewerage Operators, 41222 Larissa, Greece
3
Water Resources Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
4
Center of Excellence for Climate Change Research, Department of Meteorology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
5
Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehak-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu 41566, Korea
6
Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Aswan University, Aswan 81542, Egypt
7
Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic University, Madinah 42351, Saudi Arabia
8
Department of International Water Resources, Izmir Institute of Technology, 35430 Izmir, Turkey
9
College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, SKUAST-Kashmir, Srinagar (J&K) 190025, India
10
Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
11
State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pei Xu
Water 2021, 13(16), 2222; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162222
Received: 2 July 2021 / Revised: 11 August 2021 / Accepted: 12 August 2021 / Published: 16 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Scarcity: From Ancient to Modern Times and the Future)
Water is life, and without water, there would be no civilizations and a vacant Earth. Water is considered an abundant natural resource on the earth. Water covers 3/4 of the surface. However, 97% of the available water on the earth is salty oceanic water, and only a tiny fraction (3%) is freshwater. This small portion of the available water supplies the needs of humans and animals. However, freshwater exists in underground, rivers, and lakes and is insufficient to cover all the world’s water demands. Thus, water saving, water reuse, rainwater harvesting, stormwater utilization, and desalination are critical for maintaining water supplies for the future of humanity. Desalination has a long history spanning centuries from ancient times to the present. In the last two decades, desalination has been rapidly expanding to meet water needs in stressed water regions of the world. Yet, there are still some problems with its implementation in several areas of the world. This review provides a comprehensive assessment of the history of desalination for wiser and smarter water extraction and uses to sustain and support the water needs of the earth’s inhabitants. View Full-Text
Keywords: distillation; evaporation; Persian Gulf; reverse osmosis; seawater; brackish water; sustainable development; wastewater treatment and reuse distillation; evaporation; Persian Gulf; reverse osmosis; seawater; brackish water; sustainable development; wastewater treatment and reuse
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Angelakis, A.N.; Valipour, M.; Choo, K.-H.; Ahmed, A.T.; Baba, A.; Kumar, R.; Toor, G.S.; Wang, Z. Desalination: From Ancient to Present and Future. Water 2021, 13, 2222. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162222

AMA Style

Angelakis AN, Valipour M, Choo K-H, Ahmed AT, Baba A, Kumar R, Toor GS, Wang Z. Desalination: From Ancient to Present and Future. Water. 2021; 13(16):2222. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162222

Chicago/Turabian Style

Angelakis, Andreas N., Mohammad Valipour, Kwang-Ho Choo, Abdelkader T. Ahmed, Alper Baba, Rohitashw Kumar, Gurpal S. Toor, and Zhiwei Wang. 2021. "Desalination: From Ancient to Present and Future" Water 13, no. 16: 2222. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162222

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop