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Desalination: From Ancient to Present and Future

HAO-Demeter, Agricultural Research Institution of Crete, 71300 Iraklion, Greece
Union of Hellenic Water Supply and Sewerage Operators, 41222 Larissa, Greece
Water Resources Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
Center of Excellence for Climate Change Research, Department of Meteorology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehak-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu 41566, Korea
Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Aswan University, Aswan 81542, Egypt
Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic University, Madinah 42351, Saudi Arabia
Department of International Water Resources, Izmir Institute of Technology, 35430 Izmir, Turkey
College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, SKUAST-Kashmir, Srinagar (J&K) 190025, India
Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pei Xu
Water 2021, 13(16), 2222;
Received: 2 July 2021 / Revised: 11 August 2021 / Accepted: 12 August 2021 / Published: 16 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Scarcity: From Ancient to Modern Times and the Future)
Water is life, and without water, there would be no civilizations and a vacant Earth. Water is considered an abundant natural resource on the earth. Water covers 3/4 of the surface. However, 97% of the available water on the earth is salty oceanic water, and only a tiny fraction (3%) is freshwater. This small portion of the available water supplies the needs of humans and animals. However, freshwater exists in underground, rivers, and lakes and is insufficient to cover all the world’s water demands. Thus, water saving, water reuse, rainwater harvesting, stormwater utilization, and desalination are critical for maintaining water supplies for the future of humanity. Desalination has a long history spanning centuries from ancient times to the present. In the last two decades, desalination has been rapidly expanding to meet water needs in stressed water regions of the world. Yet, there are still some problems with its implementation in several areas of the world. This review provides a comprehensive assessment of the history of desalination for wiser and smarter water extraction and uses to sustain and support the water needs of the earth’s inhabitants. View Full-Text
Keywords: distillation; evaporation; Persian Gulf; reverse osmosis; seawater; brackish water; sustainable development; wastewater treatment and reuse distillation; evaporation; Persian Gulf; reverse osmosis; seawater; brackish water; sustainable development; wastewater treatment and reuse
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MDPI and ACS Style

Angelakis, A.N.; Valipour, M.; Choo, K.-H.; Ahmed, A.T.; Baba, A.; Kumar, R.; Toor, G.S.; Wang, Z. Desalination: From Ancient to Present and Future. Water 2021, 13, 2222.

AMA Style

Angelakis AN, Valipour M, Choo K-H, Ahmed AT, Baba A, Kumar R, Toor GS, Wang Z. Desalination: From Ancient to Present and Future. Water. 2021; 13(16):2222.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Angelakis, Andreas N., Mohammad Valipour, Kwang-Ho Choo, Abdelkader T. Ahmed, Alper Baba, Rohitashw Kumar, Gurpal S. Toor, and Zhiwei Wang. 2021. "Desalination: From Ancient to Present and Future" Water 13, no. 16: 2222.

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