Next Article in Journal
A Collaborative Sensing System for Farmland Water Conservancy Project Maintenance through Integrating Satellite, Aerial, and Ground Observations
Next Article in Special Issue
Comparative Use of Hydrologic Indicators to Determine the Effects of Flow Regimes on Water Quality in Three Channels across Southern Florida, USA
Previous Article in Journal
Integration of In Situ and Remote Sensing Measurements for the Management of Harmful Cyanobacteria Blooms. A Lesson from a Strategic Multiple-Uses Reservoir (Lake Occhito, South Italy)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Dependence of Long-Term Dynamics of Zooplankton in the Ob River on Interannual Changes in Hydrological and Hydrochemical Parameters
Article

Levels, Inventory, and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Wetland Ecosystem, Northeast China: Implications for Snow Cover Monitoring

by 1,2,3,†, 1,†, 2,3, 4, 5, 4, 1, 2,3, 2,3 and 1,2,3,*
1
Heilongjiang Province Key Laboratory of Cold Region Wetland Ecology and Environment Research, Harbin University, Harbin 150086, China
2
International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), School of Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China
3
Research Center for Eco-Environment Protection of Songhua River Basin, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China
4
The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH, UK
5
State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Fuxiang Zhang and Bo Meng contributed equally to the work and should be regarded as co-first authors.
Academic Editors: Xin’an Yin, Xu’feng Mao, Jianguo Zhou and Zhengjian Yang
Water 2021, 13(16), 2161; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162161
Received: 10 July 2021 / Revised: 30 July 2021 / Accepted: 5 August 2021 / Published: 6 August 2021
Snow cover is a unique environmental medium in cold regions that can cause potential risks to the ecological environment, due to the release of pollutants that are stored in it. In this study, the Qixing River wetland, located in the Sanjiang Plain of China, was taken as the target research area. Heavy metals in snow cover, including Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Zn were measured at 19 sampling sites. The results showed that the average concentrations of heavy metals were: Zn (103.46 ± 39.16) > Pb (13.08 ± 4.99) > Cr (11.97 ± 2.82) > Ni (9.55 ± 4.96) > Cu (6.19 ± 1.79) > Cd (0.55 ± 0.25) μg·L−1. Cr and Zn were between Class I and Class II in the “Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water” of China (GB3838-2002). Pb in snow exceeded the upper limit of Class II, and was significantly higher than concentrations measured in water samples from the Qixing River wetland (p < 0.05), indicating that atmospheric deposition during winter was the major source of Pb. The water pollution index (WPI) indicated that 61.0% of samples could be considered of “clean” status, while the contribution of Zn, Pb, and Cr to WPI were 33.3%, 21.0%, and 19.3%, respectively. A preliminary evaluation of heavy metal inventory in snow cover showed that the residue level of Zn was the highest (2313.57 ± 1194.67 μg·m−2), while Cd was the lowest (13.91 ± 10.45 μg·m−2). The areas with high residues of heavy metals were all located near the buffer zone of the wetland (except for Zn), where snow depth tended to be greatest. Exposure analysis indicated that the risks to winter resident birds from snow ingestion was minimal, but it should be noted that the exposure risk was higher in birds with lower bodyweights. This study provides important information and scientific knowledge on the pollution characteristics and residue inventory of heavy metals in wetland ecosystems, while the results can also provide a monitoring method, reflecting atmospheric environmental quality at a local or regional scale. View Full-Text
Keywords: wetland; snow cover; heavy metals; residue inventory; risk assessment wetland; snow cover; heavy metals; residue inventory; risk assessment
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, F.; Meng, B.; Gao, S.; Hough, R.; Hu, P.; Zhang, Z.; Yu, S.; Li, K.; Liu, Z.; Cui, S. Levels, Inventory, and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Wetland Ecosystem, Northeast China: Implications for Snow Cover Monitoring. Water 2021, 13, 2161. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162161

AMA Style

Zhang F, Meng B, Gao S, Hough R, Hu P, Zhang Z, Yu S, Li K, Liu Z, Cui S. Levels, Inventory, and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Wetland Ecosystem, Northeast China: Implications for Snow Cover Monitoring. Water. 2021; 13(16):2161. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162161

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Fuxiang, Bo Meng, Shang Gao, Rupert Hough, Peng Hu, Zulin Zhang, Shaopeng Yu, Kunyang Li, Zhikun Liu, and Song Cui. 2021. "Levels, Inventory, and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Wetland Ecosystem, Northeast China: Implications for Snow Cover Monitoring" Water 13, no. 16: 2161. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162161

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop