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Article

Socio-Institutional Drivers of Groundwater Contamination Hazards: The Case of On-Site Sanitation in the Bwaise Informal Settlement, Kampala, Uganda

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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Design, Art and Technology, Makerere University, Kampala P.O. Box 7062, Uganda
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Department of Urban Water and Sewerage Services, Ministry of Water and Environment, Kampala P.O. Box 20026, Uganda
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DRIFT (Dutch Research Institute for Transitions), Erasmus University Rotterdam, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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Department of Engineering and Environment, Faculty of Science and Technology, Uganda Christian University, Mukono P.O. Box 4, Uganda
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Department of Water Science and Engineering, IHE Delft Institute for Water Education, P.O. Box 3015, 2601 DA Delft, The Netherlands
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Department of Environmental Management, Makerere University, Kampala P.O. Box 7062, Uganda
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Viviana Re and Theresa Frommen
Water 2021, 13(16), 2153; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162153
Received: 31 May 2021 / Revised: 17 July 2021 / Accepted: 2 August 2021 / Published: 5 August 2021
Socio-institutional factors are poorly addressed in the risk assessment of groundwater contamination. This paper contributes to the development of a socio-institutional assessment framework based on a case study of contamination by on-site sanitation (OSS) in an informal settlement of Bwaise (Kampala, Uganda). We conducted a snapshot survey of the recent extent of groundwater contamination by OSS using microbial and hydro-chemical indicators. Through transition arenas and key informant interviews, we investigated the socio-institutional drivers of the contamination. Overall, 14 out of the 17 sampled groundwater sources tested positive for Escherichia coli during the wet season. Nitrate concentrations at four sources exceeded the World Health Organization guideline value (50 mg/L), attributed to OSS. Despite the high contamination, the community highly valued groundwater as an alternative to the intermittent municipal water supply. We deduced six drivers of groundwater contamination, including land-use management, user attributes, governance, infrastructure management, groundwater valuation, and the operating environment (“LUGIVE”). Qualitative indicators for each of the drivers were also construed, and their interlinkages presented in a causal loop diagram, representing a socio-institutional assessment framework. The framework can help policymakers and the community to analyze various socio-institutional control levers to reduce the risk of groundwater contamination by OSS in informal settlements. View Full-Text
Keywords: contamination; groundwater; informal settlements; on-site sanitation; socio-hydrogeological systems contamination; groundwater; informal settlements; on-site sanitation; socio-hydrogeological systems
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MDPI and ACS Style

Twinomucunguzi, F.R.B.; Silvestri, G.; Kinobe, J.; Mugabi, A.; Isoke, J.; Nyenje, P.M.; Foppen, J.W.; Kulabako, R.N.; Kansiime, F. Socio-Institutional Drivers of Groundwater Contamination Hazards: The Case of On-Site Sanitation in the Bwaise Informal Settlement, Kampala, Uganda. Water 2021, 13, 2153. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162153

AMA Style

Twinomucunguzi FRB, Silvestri G, Kinobe J, Mugabi A, Isoke J, Nyenje PM, Foppen JW, Kulabako RN, Kansiime F. Socio-Institutional Drivers of Groundwater Contamination Hazards: The Case of On-Site Sanitation in the Bwaise Informal Settlement, Kampala, Uganda. Water. 2021; 13(16):2153. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162153

Chicago/Turabian Style

Twinomucunguzi, Felix R.B., Giorgia Silvestri, Joel Kinobe, Allan Mugabi, Jenifer Isoke, Philip M. Nyenje, Jan W. Foppen, Robinah N. Kulabako, and Frank Kansiime. 2021. "Socio-Institutional Drivers of Groundwater Contamination Hazards: The Case of On-Site Sanitation in the Bwaise Informal Settlement, Kampala, Uganda" Water 13, no. 16: 2153. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162153

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