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Article

Evaluation of Costs and Efficiencies of Urban Low Impact Development (LID) Practices on Stormwater Runoff and Soil Erosion in an Urban Watershed Using the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Model

1
Department of Agricultural & Biological Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
2
Soil & Water Systems Department, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, USA
3
USDA-Agricultural Research Service, National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
4
Department of Environmental and Sustainable Engineering, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12222, USA
5
Inwood Consulting Engineers, Inc., Oviedo, FL 32765, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Peter Weiss and Ryan Winston
Water 2021, 13(15), 2076; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152076
Received: 20 June 2021 / Revised: 22 July 2021 / Accepted: 26 July 2021 / Published: 30 July 2021
Storm events and soil erosion can adversely impact flood control, soil conservation, water quality, the recreation economy, and ecosystem biodiversity in urban systems. Urban Low Impact Development practices (LIDs) can manage stormwater runoff, control soil losses, and improve water quality. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model has been widely applied to assess the responses of hydrology and soil losses to conservation practices in agricultural and forested areas. This research study is the first to calibrate the WEPP model to simulate streamflow discharge in the Brentwood watershed in Austin, Texas and apply the calibrated WEPP model to assess the impacts of LIDs. The costs and impacts of various LID scenarios on annual water balance, and monthly average, and daily runoff volumes, and sediment losses at hillslopes and at the watershed outlet were quantified and compared. The LID scenarios identified that native planting in Critically Eroding Areas (CEAs), native planting in all suitable areas, native planting in CEAs with detention ponds, and native planting in all suitable areas with detention ponds could reduce the predicted average annual stormwater runoff by 20–24% and sediment losses by 86–94% at the watershed outlet, and reduce the average annual soil loss rates on hillslope profiles in sub-watersheds by 86–87% with the lowest costs (USD 2991/yr–USD 5257/yr). Watershed/field characteristics, locations, areas, costs, and the effectiveness of the LID practices were essential in choosing the LID scenarios. These research results can help guide decision-making on the selection and implementation of the most economical and suitable LID practices to strengthen the climate resilience and environmental sustainability of urban systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: flood control; soil erosion; hydrologic modeling; green infrastructure cost; cost-effective flood control; soil erosion; hydrologic modeling; green infrastructure cost; cost-effective
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MDPI and ACS Style

Guo, T.; Srivastava, A.; Flanagan, D.C.; Liu, Y.; Engel, B.A.; McIntosh, M.M. Evaluation of Costs and Efficiencies of Urban Low Impact Development (LID) Practices on Stormwater Runoff and Soil Erosion in an Urban Watershed Using the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Model. Water 2021, 13, 2076. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152076

AMA Style

Guo T, Srivastava A, Flanagan DC, Liu Y, Engel BA, McIntosh MM. Evaluation of Costs and Efficiencies of Urban Low Impact Development (LID) Practices on Stormwater Runoff and Soil Erosion in an Urban Watershed Using the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Model. Water. 2021; 13(15):2076. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152076

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guo, Tian, Anurag Srivastava, Dennis C. Flanagan, Yaoze Liu, Bernard A. Engel, and Madeline M. McIntosh 2021. "Evaluation of Costs and Efficiencies of Urban Low Impact Development (LID) Practices on Stormwater Runoff and Soil Erosion in an Urban Watershed Using the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Model" Water 13, no. 15: 2076. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152076

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