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Article

Water Distribution in a Socio-Technical System: Resilience Assessment for Critical Events Causing Demand Relocation

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt, Germany
2
Department of History and Social Sciences, Technical University of Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Robert Sitzenfrei, Kegong Diao and David Butler
Water 2021, 13(15), 2062; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152062
Received: 25 June 2021 / Revised: 23 July 2021 / Accepted: 24 July 2021 / Published: 29 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilience of Interdependent Urban Water Systems)
This study presents an exploratory, historically-informed approach to assessing resilience for critical events that cause demand relocation within a water distribution system (WDS). Considering WDS as an interdependent socio-technical system, demand relocation is regarded as a critical factor that can affect resilience similarly to the more commonly analyzed component failures such as pipe leaks and pump failures. Critical events are modeled as events during which consumer nodes are evacuated within a perimeter varying in size according to a typical length scale in the studied network. The required demand drops to zero in the evacuated area, and the equivalent demand is relocated according to three sheltering schemes. Results are presented for analyzing the effect of the size of the evacuated area, the feasibility of sheltering schemes, vulnerability of particular parts of the city as well as the suitability of network nodes to accommodate relocated demand using a suitable resilience metric. The results provided by this metric are compared with those drawn from common graph-based metrics. The conclusions are critically discussed under the consideration of historical knowledge to serve as a basis for future research to refine resilience assessment of socio-technical systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: water distribution systems; resilience; water demand; critical infrastructure; socio-technical systems water distribution systems; resilience; water demand; critical infrastructure; socio-technical systems
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MDPI and ACS Style

Logan, K.T.; Leštáková, M.; Thiessen, N.; Engels, J.I.; Pelz, P.F. Water Distribution in a Socio-Technical System: Resilience Assessment for Critical Events Causing Demand Relocation. Water 2021, 13, 2062. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152062

AMA Style

Logan KT, Leštáková M, Thiessen N, Engels JI, Pelz PF. Water Distribution in a Socio-Technical System: Resilience Assessment for Critical Events Causing Demand Relocation. Water. 2021; 13(15):2062. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152062

Chicago/Turabian Style

Logan, Kevin T., Michaela Leštáková, Nadja Thiessen, Jens Ivo Engels, and Peter F. Pelz. 2021. "Water Distribution in a Socio-Technical System: Resilience Assessment for Critical Events Causing Demand Relocation" Water 13, no. 15: 2062. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152062

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