Next Article in Journal
Quantitative Response of Maize Vcmax25 to Persistent Drought Stress at Different Growth Stages
Previous Article in Journal
Weather Risk Assessment for Collective Water Supply and Sewerage Systems
Previous Article in Special Issue
Palladium-Supported Zirconia-Based Catalytic Degradation of Rhodamine-B Dye from Wastewater
Article

Adsorption-Membrane Hybrid Approach for the Removal of Azithromycin from Water: An Attempt to Minimize Drug Resistance Problem

1
Department of Chemistry, Islamia College University, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan
2
Department of Biochemistry, University of Malakand, Chakdara 18800, Pakistan
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Malakand, Chakdara 18800, Pakistan
4
Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, 5 Kreutzwaldi St., 51014 Tartu, Estonia
5
Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Research Centre of Biotechnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospect, 33, Build. 2, 119071 Moscow, Russia
6
Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Tartu, 14 Ravila st, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Margaritis Kostoglou
Water 2021, 13(14), 1969; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141969
Received: 1 June 2021 / Revised: 15 July 2021 / Accepted: 15 July 2021 / Published: 18 July 2021
In this study, activated carbon (AC) and magnetic activated carbon (MAC) were prepared from Dalbergia sissoo sawdust for the removal of antibiotic Azithromycin (AZM) from aqueous solution. The effect of initial concentration, contact time, pH, adsorbent dosage, and the temperature were investigated for both the adsorbents. The optimum AZM concentration, contact time, pH and adsorbents dosages were found to be 80 mg/L, 120 min, 6 and 7 (pH, respectively, for AC and MAC), and 0.1 g (for both AC and MAC), respectively. The isothermal data of both sets of experiments correlated well with the Langmuir isotherm model, while the kinetic data with the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption of AZM on both adsorbents was found to be favorable, which is evident in the values of the thermodynamic parameters (ΔH = −26.506 and −24.149 KJ/mol, ΔS = 91.812 and 81.991 J/mol K, respectively, for AC and MAC). To evaluate the effect of AC and MAC on the membrane parameters, a continuous stirred reactor was connected with ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. High % retention and improved permeate flux (around 90%) were obtained for AC/UF, AC/NF AC/RO, MAC/UF, MAC/NF, and MAC/RO treatments. The percent retention of AZM observed for AC/UF, AC/NF AC/RO was higher than MAC/UF, MAC/NF, and for MAC/RO hybrid processes due to greater surface area of AC than MAC. View Full-Text
Keywords: activated carbon; magnetic activated carbon; azithromycin; percent retention; permeate flux activated carbon; magnetic activated carbon; azithromycin; percent retention; permeate flux
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wahab, M.; Zahoor, M.; Muhammad Salman, S.; Kamran, A.W.; Naz, S.; Burlakovs, J.; Kallistova, A.; Pimenov, N.; Zekker, I. Adsorption-Membrane Hybrid Approach for the Removal of Azithromycin from Water: An Attempt to Minimize Drug Resistance Problem. Water 2021, 13, 1969. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141969

AMA Style

Wahab M, Zahoor M, Muhammad Salman S, Kamran AW, Naz S, Burlakovs J, Kallistova A, Pimenov N, Zekker I. Adsorption-Membrane Hybrid Approach for the Removal of Azithromycin from Water: An Attempt to Minimize Drug Resistance Problem. Water. 2021; 13(14):1969. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141969

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wahab, Muhammad, Muhammad Zahoor, Syed Muhammad Salman, Abdul W. Kamran, Sumaira Naz, Juris Burlakovs, Anna Kallistova, Nikolai Pimenov, and Ivar Zekker. 2021. "Adsorption-Membrane Hybrid Approach for the Removal of Azithromycin from Water: An Attempt to Minimize Drug Resistance Problem" Water 13, no. 14: 1969. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141969

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop