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Review

A Unified View of Nonlinear Resistance Formulas for Seepage Flow in Coarse Granular Media

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Hydraulics, Energy and Environment, E.T.S. de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Profesor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
SERPA Dam Safety Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Hydraulics, Energy and Environment, E.T.S. de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Profesor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
3
Centre Internacional de Metodes Numerics en Enginyeria (CIMNE), Campus Norte UPC, Gran Capitán s/n, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anargiros I. Delis
Water 2021, 13(14), 1967; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141967
Received: 17 May 2021 / Revised: 1 July 2021 / Accepted: 6 July 2021 / Published: 17 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dam Safety. Overtopping and Geostructural Risks)
There are many studies on the nonlinear relationship between seepage velocity and hydraulic gradient in coarse granular materials, using different approaches and variables to define the resistance formula applicable to that type of granular media. On the basis of an analysis of the existing formulations developed in different studies, we propose an approach for comparing the results obtained by some of the most important studies on state-of-the-art seepage flow in coarse granular media. View Full-Text
Keywords: porous media; Forchheimer equation; non-Darcy flow; high velocity; crushed rock; rounded materials; hydraulic mean radius; intrinsic permeability; shape of particles; angularity of particles; surface roughness of particles porous media; Forchheimer equation; non-Darcy flow; high velocity; crushed rock; rounded materials; hydraulic mean radius; intrinsic permeability; shape of particles; angularity of particles; surface roughness of particles
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MDPI and ACS Style

López, J.C.; Toledo, M.Á.; Moran, R. A Unified View of Nonlinear Resistance Formulas for Seepage Flow in Coarse Granular Media. Water 2021, 13, 1967. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141967

AMA Style

López JC, Toledo MÁ, Moran R. A Unified View of Nonlinear Resistance Formulas for Seepage Flow in Coarse Granular Media. Water. 2021; 13(14):1967. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141967

Chicago/Turabian Style

López, Juan C., Miguel Á. Toledo, and Rafael Moran. 2021. "A Unified View of Nonlinear Resistance Formulas for Seepage Flow in Coarse Granular Media" Water 13, no. 14: 1967. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141967

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