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Article

Landscape Pattern Change of Impervious Surfaces and Its Driving Forces in Shanghai during 1965–2010

1
School of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China
2
Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
3
Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Richard C. Smardon
Water 2021, 13(14), 1956; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141956
Received: 19 May 2021 / Revised: 9 July 2021 / Accepted: 9 July 2021 / Published: 16 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
Rapid urbanization influences the landscape pattern of impervious surfaces, and potentially affects surface water quality. Using ArcGIS and Fragstats, this study analyzed the temporal change of the landscape pattern of impervious surfaces in Shanghai over the past 45 years, and its driving forces and impact on water quality were also analyzed. The results show that both low and high impervious surfaces showed different degrees of expansion, and as a result, the pervious surfaces and water area reduced by 40.1% and 13.8%, respectively. It proves that the fragmentation and diversity of impervious surfaces in Shanghai notably increased in the past decades, and especially the low and high impervious surfaces show substantial changes. The primary driving forces of the landscape pattern change are population density, unit area Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and the percentage of primary industry. The result of Redundancy analysis (RDA) is that the explanatory ability of landscape pattern to water quality variations decreased from 68.7% to 46.4% in the period 2000–2010. It should be stressed that the contribution of the configuration of impervious surfaces to water quality variation is less than that of the percentage of impervious surfaces. View Full-Text
Keywords: impervious surfaces; landscape pattern; rapid urbanization; driving forces; water quality impervious surfaces; landscape pattern; rapid urbanization; driving forces; water quality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yao, Y.; Zhang, S.; Shi, Y.; Xu, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J. Landscape Pattern Change of Impervious Surfaces and Its Driving Forces in Shanghai during 1965–2010. Water 2021, 13, 1956. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141956

AMA Style

Yao Y, Zhang S, Shi Y, Xu M, Zhang J, Zhang Y, Zhao J. Landscape Pattern Change of Impervious Surfaces and Its Driving Forces in Shanghai during 1965–2010. Water. 2021; 13(14):1956. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141956

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yao, Yang, Sen Zhang, Yuqing Shi, Mengqi Xu, Jiaquan Zhang, Yongming Zhang, and Jun Zhao. 2021. "Landscape Pattern Change of Impervious Surfaces and Its Driving Forces in Shanghai during 1965–2010" Water 13, no. 14: 1956. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141956

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