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Article

Rise and Fall of the Grand Canal in the Ancient Kaifeng City of China: Role of the Grand Canal and Water Supply in Urban and Regional Development

1
School of Political Science and Public Administration, Neijiang Normal University, Neijiang 641112, China
2
Department of The Commission for Discipline Inspection, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471934, China
3
College of Public Administration, Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics, Hangzhou 310018, China
4
Social Science Research Institute, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi 259-1292, Kanagawa-ken, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Vasileios Tzanakakis, Giovanni De Feo and Andreas N. Angelakis
Water 2021, 13(14), 1932; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141932
Received: 13 June 2021 / Accepted: 2 July 2021 / Published: 13 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Scarcity: From Ancient to Modern Times and the Future)
In the long history of the feudal society of China, Kaifeng played a vital role. During the Northern Song Dynasty, Kaifeng became a worldwide metropolis. The important reason was that the Grand Canal, which was excavated during the Sui Dynasty, became the main transportation artery for the political and military center of the north and the economic center of the south. Furthermore, Kaifeng was located at the center of the Grand Canal, which made it the capital of the later Northern Song Dynasty. The Northern Song Dynasty was called “the canal-centered era.” The development of the canal caused a series of major changes in the society of the Northern Song Dynasty that were different from the previous ones, which directly led to the transportation revolution, and in turn, promoted the commercial revolution and the urbanization of Kaifeng. The development of commerce contributed to the agricultural and money revolutions. After the Northern Song Dynasty, the political center moved to the south. During the Yuan Dynasty, the excavation of the Grand Canal made it so that water transport did not have to pass through the Central Plains. The relocation of the political center and the change in the canal route made Kaifeng lose the value of connecting the north and south, resulting in the long-time fall of the Bianhe River. Kaifeng, which had prospered for more than 100 years, declined gradually, and by the end of the Qing Dynasty, it became a common town in the Central Plains. In ancient China, the rise and fall of cities and regions were closely related to the canal, and the relationship between Kaifeng and the Grand Canal was typical. The history may provide some inspiration for the increasingly severe urban and regional sustainable development issues in contemporary times. View Full-Text
Keywords: Grand Canal; Kaifeng; water supply; sustainable development; city and regional development Grand Canal; Kaifeng; water supply; sustainable development; city and regional development
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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, W.; Xi, M.; Lu, S.; Taghizadeh-Hesary, F. Rise and Fall of the Grand Canal in the Ancient Kaifeng City of China: Role of the Grand Canal and Water Supply in Urban and Regional Development. Water 2021, 13, 1932. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141932

AMA Style

Huang W, Xi M, Lu S, Taghizadeh-Hesary F. Rise and Fall of the Grand Canal in the Ancient Kaifeng City of China: Role of the Grand Canal and Water Supply in Urban and Regional Development. Water. 2021; 13(14):1932. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141932

Chicago/Turabian Style

Huang, Wenji, Mingwang Xi, Shibao Lu, and Farhad Taghizadeh-Hesary. 2021. "Rise and Fall of the Grand Canal in the Ancient Kaifeng City of China: Role of the Grand Canal and Water Supply in Urban and Regional Development" Water 13, no. 14: 1932. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141932

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