# A Comprehensive Evaluation Model of Ammonia Pollution Trends in a Groundwater Source Area along a River in Residential Areas

^{1}

^{2}

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

^{3−}, NH

^{4+}, DOC, and DO solutes in a river–groundwater system under the condition when phreatic water supplies river water. Hashem A. Faidi pointed out that the simulation of river–groundwater flow usually includes two parts: flow simulation and solute transfer, and water exchange or solute exchange between the river and groundwater system.

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Study Area

^{2}, an average altitude of about 380 m, and an average annual precipitation of 621 mm. The study area of the model is 41.94 km

^{2}. The groundwater source area mainly supplies phreatic water, which is the only kind of water considered in our simulation. The groundwater in this area is pore water formed by the quaternary system and can be simulated approximately as pore phreatic water.

#### 2.2. Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Flow

#### 2.2.1. Generalization of Aquifers and Boundary Conditions

#### 2.2.2. Meshing

#### 2.2.3. Terms of Source and Sink

- ${\mathrm{Q}}_{\mathrm{rain}}$—quantity of rain recharges (m
^{3}/d); - ${\mathsf{\alpha}}_{\mathrm{i}}$—coefficient of rain infiltration of each calculation partition;
- ${\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{i}}$—precipitation of each calculation partition (m/d); and
- ${\mathrm{A}}_{\mathrm{i}}$—area of each calculation partition (m
^{2}).

- ${\mathrm{Q}}_{\mathrm{river}}$—quantity of river recharges (m
^{3}/d); - K—coefficient of infiltration (m/d);
- B—length of the river in the study area (m);
- H—distance from the river level to the aquifer floor in the calculation interval (m);
- h—distance from the phreatic water level to the aquifer floor in the calculation interval (m); and
- b—width of the supply zone of the river (m).

- ${\mathrm{Q}}_{\mathrm{Lateral}}$—quantity of lateral runoff recharges (m
^{3}/d); - ${\mathrm{K}}_{\mathrm{i}}$—coefficient of infiltration of the aquifer of part $\mathrm{i}$;
- ${\mathrm{I}}_{\mathrm{i}}$—normal hydraulic slope of the section of part $\mathrm{i}$; and
- ${\mathrm{A}}_{\mathrm{i}}$—area of the section of the aquifer of part $\mathrm{i}$ (m
^{2}).

- ${\mathrm{Q}}_{\mathrm{irrigation}}$—quantity of well irrigation return flow (104 m³/a);
- ${\mathrm{Q}}_{\mathrm{agri}}$—quantity of agricultural extraction (104 m³/a); and
- $\mathsf{\beta}$—coefficient of well irrigation returns flow.

^{3}/d. According to Aviriyanover, the maximum depth of evaporation from the buried phreatic water varies and ranges from 1.5 m to 4.0 m. As the depths of the buried phreatic water in the study area are all over 4 m, the evaporation capacity is viewed as zero (Figure 6).

#### 2.2.4. Hydrogeological Parameter

^{−7}and 2.5 × 10

^{−6}(1/d). The simulation partitions (Figure 7) and the initial parameters of each partition are displayed in Table 2.

#### 2.2.5. Mathematical Model

- Ω—vadose zone;
- H—height of the groundwater level (m);
- K—hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer in horizontal direction (m/d);
- H
_{0}—initial flow field (m); - ε—terms of source and sink of the aquifer (m/d);
- Γ
_{2}—second-class boundary of the vadose zone; - n—normal direction of the boundary surface;
- $\frac{\partial \mathrm{H}}{\partial \mathrm{n}}$—derivative of H along the outer n (dimensionless);
- q—single-width flow on Γ
_{2}(m^{2}/d), with its inflow positive and its outflow negative; and - $\mathrm{Z}\left(\mathrm{x},\mathrm{y}\right)$—elevation of the aquifer floor (m).

#### 2.2.6. Solving Process

#### 2.2.7. Temporal Discretization

#### 2.2.8. Run the Model

#### 2.2.9. Model Identification and Validation

#### 2.3. Model of Migration of Pollutants in the Groundwater

- C—concentration of the dissolved phase of the pollutants (ML
^{−3}); - θ—porosity of the stratum medium (dimensionless);
- t—time (T);
- ${\mathrm{x}}_{\mathrm{i}}$—distance along the axis of the rectangular coordinate system (L);
- ${\mathrm{D}}_{\mathrm{ij}}$—tensor of the coefficient of hydrodynamic dispersion (L
^{2}T^{−1}); - ${\mathrm{v}}_{\mathrm{i}}$—actual flow rate of pore water on average (LT
^{−1}); - ${\mathrm{q}}_{\mathrm{s}}$—flow of the aquifer per unit volume, representing source (positive) and sink (negative) (T
^{−1}); - ${\mathrm{C}}_{\mathrm{s}}$—concentration of pollutants in a source or sink (ML
^{−3}); - $\sum {\mathrm{R}}_{\mathrm{n}}$—term of chemical reaction (ML
^{−3}T^{−1}); and - Ω—overall simulation area.

#### 2.3.1. Selection of Simulated Factors

#### 2.3.2. Stress Period

## 3. Results

#### 3.1. The Area of Influence of Ammonia

#### 3.2. The Ammonia Pollution Plume

#### 3.3. The Ammonia Content

## 4. Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

- (1)
- During this simulation, a field survey was conducted in the study area. Combined with the current hydrology and water quality of the study area, the hydrogeological conceptual model was converted into a numerical model of groundwater flow and solute transport. Additionally, by using ammonia as the simulation factor, the calibrated model was used to simulate the hydrology and water quality of the study area. It is concluded that the established hydrogeological conceptual model and numerical model are correct, and the selected parameters and calculated source and sink terms are reasonable, which conform to the actual groundwater conditions in the study area. Thus, the results of this study can be used for water flow field research and water source mining planning.
- (2)
- In this study, the GMS model was used to predict and analyze the diffusion process of pollutants in the study area and to simulate the migration trend for 20 years. Through the analysis of the GMS model, it is predicted that pollutants will gradually migrate eastward from the river to groundwater, with the impact of ammonia in the river water on groundwater remaining within an acceptable range, and the ammonia content at the intake well meets the Quality Standard for Ground Water class III [ammonia (GB/T14848-2017 (in Chinese))].
- (3)
- Using the GMS model to simulate and predict the hydrological and water quality status of groundwater is conducive to understanding the status of groundwater pollution and to adopting thoughtful treatment and maintenance measures. However, the speed of pollutant migration and the size of the diffusion range are closely related to the amount and intensity of groundwater extraction. Therefore, when predicting the migration of pollutants, the influencing factors should be taken into consideration.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Schematic diagram of the migration and transformation of pollutants in a river infiltration system.

**Figure 9.**Distribution of water level and flow field at different simulation times. (

**a**) Simulates the water level after 3 years under nomal pumping conditions (

**b**) Simulates the water level after 5 years under nomal pumping conditions (

**c**) Simulates the water level after 10 years under nomal pumping conditions (

**d**) Simulates the water level after 13 years under nomal pumping conditions (

**e**) Simulates the water level after 15 years under nomal pumping conditions (

**f**) Simulates the water level after 20 years under nomal pumping conditions.

**Figure 12.**Simulation results of plane migration of the ammonia pollution plume. (

**a**) Simulation results of plane migration of the ammonia pollution plume for 100 days (

**b**) Simulation results of plane migration of the ammonia pollution plume for 1000 days (

**c**) Simulation results of plane migration of the ammonia pollution plume for 3600 days (

**d**) Simulation results of plane migration of the ammonia pollution plume for 7300 days.

**Figure 13.**Simulation results of migration of the ammonia pollution plume in the four sections. (

**a**) Simulation results of plane migration of ammonia pollution (

**b**) Simulation results of plane migration of ammonia pollution (

**c**) Simulation results of plane migration of ammonia pollution (

**d**) Simulation results of plane migration of ammonia pollution.

**Figure 14.**Changes in the ammonia content near wells. (

**a**) Changes in ammonia content near well A. (

**b**) Changes in ammonia content near well B.

Calculation Partition | Parameter Value | Calculation Partition | Parameter Value |
---|---|---|---|

I | 0.10 | II | 0.08 |

Number | Horizontal Permeability Coefficient (m/d) | Specific Yield | Number | Horizontal Permeability Coefficient ((m/d) | Specific Yield |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 45.2 | 0.2 | 4 | 6.4 | 0.2 |

2 | 38.3 | 0.2 | 5 | 16.1 | 0.3 |

3 | 35.2 | 0.2 | 6 | 7.8 | 0.3 |

Profile Number | A | B | C | D |
---|---|---|---|---|

Concentration (mg/L) | 0.48 | 0.46 | 0.34 | 0.41 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Wang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Xie, T.; Wen, N.; Yao, J.
A Comprehensive Evaluation Model of Ammonia Pollution Trends in a Groundwater Source Area along a River in Residential Areas. *Water* **2021**, *13*, 1924.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141924

**AMA Style**

Wang Z, Zhao X, Xie T, Wen N, Yao J.
A Comprehensive Evaluation Model of Ammonia Pollution Trends in a Groundwater Source Area along a River in Residential Areas. *Water*. 2021; 13(14):1924.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141924

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Wang, Zhuoran, Xiaoguang Zhao, Tianyu Xie, Na Wen, and Jing Yao.
2021. "A Comprehensive Evaluation Model of Ammonia Pollution Trends in a Groundwater Source Area along a River in Residential Areas" *Water* 13, no. 14: 1924.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141924