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Assessing the Effect of Changing Ambient Air Temperature on Water Temperature and Quality in Drinking Water Distribution Systems

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xing Fang
Water 2021, 13(14), 1916; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141916
Received: 26 May 2021 / Revised: 3 July 2021 / Accepted: 9 July 2021 / Published: 11 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
Drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) are affected by climate change and this work aimed to assess the effect of changing ambient air temperature on the water temperature and various water quality parameters in DWDS. A water temperature estimation model was identified and evaluated at seven specific locations in the U.S. and water quality parameters were assessed with a case study for Washington D.C. Preliminary estimation of changes in water temperature and two temperature-related parameters (the chlorine decay rate and bacterial activity) were developed for 91 U.S. cities using local air temperature observations and projections. Estimated water temperature changes in DWDS are generally equivalent to air temperature changes on an annual average basis, suggesting modest changes for the assessed historical periods and possibly more intensified changes in the future with greater increase in air temperature. As higher water age can amplify the temperature effect and the effects of temperature on some water quality parameters can be inter-related, yielding an aggregated effect, evaluation of extreme cases for DWDS will be of importance. In responding to changing climate conditions, assessments of DWDS water temperature changes and resulting impacts on water quality merit more attention to ensure appropriate adaptation of DWDS design and management. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; distribution system; drinking water; temperature climate change; distribution system; drinking water; temperature
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lai, Y.; Dzombak, D.A. Assessing the Effect of Changing Ambient Air Temperature on Water Temperature and Quality in Drinking Water Distribution Systems. Water 2021, 13, 1916. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141916

AMA Style

Lai Y, Dzombak DA. Assessing the Effect of Changing Ambient Air Temperature on Water Temperature and Quality in Drinking Water Distribution Systems. Water. 2021; 13(14):1916. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141916

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lai, Yuchuan, and David A. Dzombak 2021. "Assessing the Effect of Changing Ambient Air Temperature on Water Temperature and Quality in Drinking Water Distribution Systems" Water 13, no. 14: 1916. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141916

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