Next Article in Journal
Enhanced Operational Flexibility of a Small Run-of-River Hydropower Plant
Next Article in Special Issue
Phosphorus Release from Sediments in a Raw Water Reservoir with Reduced Allochthonous Input
Previous Article in Journal
Stormwater Harvested from Permeable Pavements as a Means to Save Potable Water in Buildings
Previous Article in Special Issue
Sulfur Isotope and Stoichiometry–Based Source Identification of Major Ions and Risk Assessment in Chishui River Basin, Southwest China
Article

Evidence of Anthropogenic Gadolinium in Triangle Area Waters, North Carolina, USA

1
Department of Geological Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
2
Key Laboratory of Karst Georesources and Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Barbieri
Water 2021, 13(14), 1895; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141895
Received: 27 May 2021 / Revised: 27 June 2021 / Accepted: 2 July 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021
Gadolinium (Gd), a member of the rare earth elements (REE), is becoming an increasingly observed microcontaminant in waters of developed regions. Anthropogenic Gd anomalies were first noted in 1996 and were determined to be sourced from Gd-based contrast agents used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study investigates Gd anomalies in North Carolina’s Triangle Area, focusing on surrounding wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Samples were obtained from upstream and downstream of selected WWTPs as well as a freshwater reservoir that supplies part of the region’s drinking water. The PAAS-normalized samples indicate Gd anomalies in the influent, effluent, and downstream samples. We quantify the anthropogenic Gd in wastewater samples to constitute between 98.1% to 99.8%. Sample comparisons show an average increase of 45.3% estimated anthropogenic Gd between samples upstream and downstream of WWTPs. This research contributes to the existing database demonstrating the presence of anthropogenic Gd in developed regions. Although current Gd concentrations are not near toxic levels, they should be continuously monitored as a micropollutant and serve as a wastewater tracer. View Full-Text
Keywords: gadolinium; rare earth elements; micropollutants; wastewater treatment; anthropogenic contaminants gadolinium; rare earth elements; micropollutants; wastewater treatment; anthropogenic contaminants
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zabrecky, J.M.; Liu, X.-M.; Wu, Q.; Cao, C. Evidence of Anthropogenic Gadolinium in Triangle Area Waters, North Carolina, USA. Water 2021, 13, 1895. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141895

AMA Style

Zabrecky JM, Liu X-M, Wu Q, Cao C. Evidence of Anthropogenic Gadolinium in Triangle Area Waters, North Carolina, USA. Water. 2021; 13(14):1895. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141895

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zabrecky, Jordan M., Xiao-Ming Liu, Qixin Wu, and Cheng Cao. 2021. "Evidence of Anthropogenic Gadolinium in Triangle Area Waters, North Carolina, USA" Water 13, no. 14: 1895. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141895

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop