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Article

Variabilities and Trends of Rainfall, Temperature, and River Flow in Sipi Sub-Catchment on the Slopes of Mt. Elgon, Uganda

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Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Gulu University, Awich Road, Gulu P.O. Box 166, Uganda
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Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Climatic Sciences, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala P.O. Box 576, Uganda
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Department of Agriculture and Biosystems Engineering, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala P.O. Box 576, Uganda
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Centre for Geographic Information Systems, Centre for Middle Eastern Studies, Lund University, P.O. Box 117, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
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Department of Geography, Faculty of Education and Humanities, Gulu University, Awich Road, Gulu P.O. Box 166, Uganda
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Facultéd’ Agronomie et Environnement, Université Evangéliqueen Afrique, Bukavu B.P. 3323, Congo
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Mimikou
Water 2021, 13(13), 1834; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131834
Received: 11 May 2021 / Revised: 20 June 2021 / Accepted: 21 June 2021 / Published: 30 June 2021
The variabilities in rainfall and temperature in a catchment affect water availability and sustainability. This study assessed the variabilities in rainfall and temperature (1981–2015) and river flow (1998–2015) in the Sipi sub-catchment on annual and seasonal scales. Observed daily rainfall and temperature data for Buginyanya and Kapchorwa weather stations were obtained from the Uganda National Meteorological Authority (UNMA), while the daily river-flow data for Sipi were obtained from the Ministry of Water and Environment (MWE). The study used descriptive statistics, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Mann–Kendall trend analysis, and Sen’s slope estimator. Results indicate a high coefficient of variation (CV) (CV > 30) for August, September, October, and November (ASON) seasonal rainfall, while annual rainfall had a moderate coefficient of variation (20 ˂ CV ˂ 30). The trend analysis shows that ASON minimum and mean temperatures increased at α = 0.001 and α = 0.05 levels of significance respectively in both stations and over the entire catchment. Furthermore, annual and March, April, and May (MAM) river flows increased at an α = 0.05 level of significance. A total of 14 extremely wet and dry events occurred in the sub-catchment during the post-2000 period, as compared to five in the pre-2000. The significant increased trend of river flow could be attributed to the impacts of climate and land-use changes. Therefore, future studies may need to quantify the impacts of future climate and land-use changes on water resources in the sub-catchment. View Full-Text
Keywords: annual and seasonal scales; variabilities; extremely wet and dry; water resources; Mt. Elgon; Uganda annual and seasonal scales; variabilities; extremely wet and dry; water resources; Mt. Elgon; Uganda
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kilama Luwa, J.; Majaliwa, J.-G.M.; Bamutaze, Y.; Kabenge, I.; Pilesjo, P.; Oriangi, G.; Bagula Mukengere, E. Variabilities and Trends of Rainfall, Temperature, and River Flow in Sipi Sub-Catchment on the Slopes of Mt. Elgon, Uganda. Water 2021, 13, 1834. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131834

AMA Style

Kilama Luwa J, Majaliwa J-GM, Bamutaze Y, Kabenge I, Pilesjo P, Oriangi G, Bagula Mukengere E. Variabilities and Trends of Rainfall, Temperature, and River Flow in Sipi Sub-Catchment on the Slopes of Mt. Elgon, Uganda. Water. 2021; 13(13):1834. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131834

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kilama Luwa, Justine, Jackson-Gilbert M. Majaliwa, Yazidhi Bamutaze, Isa Kabenge, Petter Pilesjo, George Oriangi, and Espoir Bagula Mukengere. 2021. "Variabilities and Trends of Rainfall, Temperature, and River Flow in Sipi Sub-Catchment on the Slopes of Mt. Elgon, Uganda" Water 13, no. 13: 1834. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131834

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