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Article

Spatial and Temporal Variation Characteristics of Snowfall in the Haihe River Basin from 1960 to 2016

by 1,2, 1,3,*, 1,3,* and 1
1
School of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056021, China
2
Hydrology and Water Resources Survey Bureau of Handan, Handan 056001, China
3
Hebei Key Laboratory of Intelligent Water Conservancy, Handan 056001, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Juraj Parajka
Water 2021, 13(13), 1798; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131798
Received: 28 April 2021 / Revised: 20 June 2021 / Accepted: 21 June 2021 / Published: 29 June 2021
The spatio-temporal variation of precipitation under global warming had been a research hotspot. Snowfall is an important part of precipitation, and its variabilities and trends in different regions have received great attention. In this paper, the Haihe River Basin is used as a case, and we employ the K-means clustering method to divide the basin into four sub-regions. The double temperature threshold method in the form of the exponential equation is used in this study to identify precipitation phase states, based on daily temperature, snowfall, and precipitation data from 43 meteorological stations in and around the Haihe River Basin from 1960 to 1979. Then, daily snowfall data from 1960 to 2016 are established, and the spatial and temporal variation of snowfall in the Haihe River Basin are analyzed according to the snowfall levels as determined by the national meteorological department. The results evalueted in four different zones show that (1) the snowfall at each meteorological station can be effectively estimated at an annual scale through the exponential equation, for which the correlation coefficient of each division is above 0.95, and the relative error is within 5%. (2) Except for the average snowfall and light snowfall, the snowfall and snowfall days of moderate snow, heavy snow, and snowstorm in each division are in the order of Zones III > IV > I > II. (3) The snowfall and the number of snowfall days at different levels both show a decreasing trend, except for the increasing trend of snowfall in Zone I. (4) The interannual variation trend in the snowfall at the different levels are not obvious, except for Zone III, which shows a significant decreasing trend. View Full-Text
Keywords: Haihe River Basin; snowfall identification; spatial and temporal variation; climate change Haihe River Basin; snowfall identification; spatial and temporal variation; climate change
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, X.; Li, S.; Liu, B.; Xu, D. Spatial and Temporal Variation Characteristics of Snowfall in the Haihe River Basin from 1960 to 2016. Water 2021, 13, 1798. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131798

AMA Style

Wu X, Li S, Liu B, Xu D. Spatial and Temporal Variation Characteristics of Snowfall in the Haihe River Basin from 1960 to 2016. Water. 2021; 13(13):1798. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131798

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wu, Xu, Su Li, Bin Liu, and Dan Xu. 2021. "Spatial and Temporal Variation Characteristics of Snowfall in the Haihe River Basin from 1960 to 2016" Water 13, no. 13: 1798. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131798

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