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Article

“One Out–All Out” Principle in the Water Framework Directive 2000—A New Approach with Fuzzy Method on an Example of Greek Lakes

1
Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi, Greece
2
Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
3
Greek Biotope/Wetland Centre (EKBY), The Goulandris Natural History Museum, 57001 Thermi, Greece
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xing Fang
Water 2021, 13(13), 1776; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131776
Received: 12 May 2021 / Revised: 23 June 2021 / Accepted: 24 June 2021 / Published: 27 June 2021
The “One Out–All Out” (OOAO) principle imposed by the WFD selects the worst ecological status assessed by different biological quality elements (BQEs). Since it is a precautionary rule that can lead to problems of underestimation of the overall status, its amendment has been a matter of debate for WFD 20+. The use of fuzzy methods that express the functional relationships between variables in ecology and management has been gaining more ground recently. Here is attempted the inclusion of a fuzzy regression among the frequently monitored BQE (phytoplankton) and the outcome of OOAO application in six Greek lakes. The latter was determined by the comparison of four BQE indices in order to assess the extent to which BQEs might underpin the optimal/actual qualitative classification of a waterbody. This approach encompasses the uncertainty and the possibility to broaden the acceptable final EQR based on the character and status of each lake. We concluded that the fuzzy OOAO is an approach that seems to allow a better understanding of the WFD implementation and case-specific evaluation, including the uncertainty in classification as an asset. Moreover, it offers a deeper understanding through self-learning processes based on the existing datasets. View Full-Text
Keywords: ecological quality assessment; OOAO; fuzzy regression; biological quality elements; water framework directive fitness check; monitoring ecological quality assessment; OOAO; fuzzy regression; biological quality elements; water framework directive fitness check; monitoring
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MDPI and ACS Style

Latinopoulos, D.; Spiliotis, M.; Ntislidou, C.; Kagalou, I.; Bobori, D.; Tsiaoussi, V.; Lazaridou, M. “One Out–All Out” Principle in the Water Framework Directive 2000—A New Approach with Fuzzy Method on an Example of Greek Lakes. Water 2021, 13, 1776. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131776

AMA Style

Latinopoulos D, Spiliotis M, Ntislidou C, Kagalou I, Bobori D, Tsiaoussi V, Lazaridou M. “One Out–All Out” Principle in the Water Framework Directive 2000—A New Approach with Fuzzy Method on an Example of Greek Lakes. Water. 2021; 13(13):1776. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131776

Chicago/Turabian Style

Latinopoulos, Dionissis, Mike Spiliotis, Chrysoula Ntislidou, Ifigenia Kagalou, Dimitra Bobori, Vasiliki Tsiaoussi, and Maria Lazaridou. 2021. "“One Out–All Out” Principle in the Water Framework Directive 2000—A New Approach with Fuzzy Method on an Example of Greek Lakes" Water 13, no. 13: 1776. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131776

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