Next Article in Journal
Flood Control Risk Identification and Quantitative Assessment of a Large-Scale Water Transfer Project
Next Article in Special Issue
Developing the Food, Water, and Energy Nexus for Food and Energy Scenarios with the World Trade Model
Previous Article in Journal
Twenty-First Century Science Calls for Twenty-First Century Groundwater Use Law: A Retrospective Analysis of Transboundary Governance Weaknesses and Future Implications in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin
Previous Article in Special Issue
Water and Food Nexus: Role of Socio-Economic Status on Water–Food Nexus in an Urban Agglomeration Hyderabad, India Using Consumption Water Footprint
Article

Water Footprint and Virtual Water Trade of Maize in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

1
Center for Environmental Research and Studies (CINEA), National University of the Center of Buenos Aires Province (UNICEN), Tandil 7000, Argentina
2
National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET), Rivadavia Av. 1917, C1033AAJ Ciudad Autónoma de, Godoy Cruz 2290, Argentina
3
Jerónimo de Ayanz Centre, Institute for Innovation and Sustainable Development in the Food Chain (IS-FOOD), Arrosadia Campus, Public University of Navarra (UPNA), 31006 Pamplona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pilar Montesinos
Water 2021, 13(13), 1769; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131769
Received: 21 May 2021 / Revised: 17 June 2021 / Accepted: 24 June 2021 / Published: 26 June 2021
Agriculture is the largest fresh water consuming sector, and maize is the most produced and consumed crop worldwide. The water footprint (WF) methodology quantifies and evaluates the water volumes consumed and polluted by a given crop, as well as its impacts. In this work, we quantified for the first time the green WF (soil water from precipitation that is evapotranspired) and the green virtual water exports of maize from Buenos Aires province, Argentina, during 2016–2017, due to the relevance of this region in the world maize trade. Furthermore, at local level, we quantified the green, blue (evapotranspired irrigation), and grey (volume of water needed to assimilate a pollution load) WF of maize in a pilot basin. The green WF of maize in the province of Buenos Aires ranged between 170 and 730 m3/ton, with the highest values in the south following a pattern of yields. The contribution of this province in terms of green virtual water to the international maize trade reached 2213 hm3/year, allowing some water-scarce nations to ensure water and water-dependent food security and avoid further environmental impacts related to water. At the Napaleofú basin scale, the total WF of rainfed maize was 358 m3/ton (89% green and 11% grey) and 388 m3/ton (58% green, 25% blue, and 17% grey) for the irrigated crop, showing that there is not only a green WF behind the exported maize, but also a Nitrogen-related grey WF. View Full-Text
Keywords: water footprint; virtual water trade; maize; Buenos Aires province; water-use sustainability; water quality; water savings water footprint; virtual water trade; maize; Buenos Aires province; water-use sustainability; water quality; water savings
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Arrien, M.M.; Aldaya, M.M.; Rodriguez, C.I. Water Footprint and Virtual Water Trade of Maize in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Water 2021, 13, 1769. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131769

AMA Style

Arrien MM, Aldaya MM, Rodriguez CI. Water Footprint and Virtual Water Trade of Maize in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Water. 2021; 13(13):1769. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131769

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arrien, Maria M., Maite M. Aldaya, and Corina I. Rodriguez 2021. "Water Footprint and Virtual Water Trade of Maize in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina" Water 13, no. 13: 1769. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131769

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop